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阅读 6715 次 历史版本 3个 创建者:紫云轻舞 (2010/11/13 11:22:40)  最新编辑:飘飘风 (2011/4/15 16:48:14)
中华人民共和国劳动合同法
拼音:Zhōng huā rén mín gòng hé guó lāo dòng hé tóng fǎ
同义词条:劳动法,合同法

前言

【发布文号】中华人民共和国主席令第六十五号
  【发布日期】2007-06-29
  【生效日期】2008-01-01
  【失效日期】-----------
  【所属类别】国家法律法规
  【文件来源】中国政府网
 
                                     中华人民共和国劳动合同法 
                                (中华人民共和国主席令第六十五号)
 
  《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》已由中华人民共和国第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十八次会议于2007629日通过,现予公布,自200811日起施行。
 
    中华人民共和国主席 胡锦涛
    2007629 

第一章 总  则 

  第一条 为了完善劳动合同制度,明确劳动合同双方当事人的权利和义务,保护劳动者的合法权益,构建和发展和谐稳定的劳动关系,制定本法。
 
  第二条 中华人民共和国境内的企业、个体经济组织、民办非企业单位等组织(以下称用人单位)与劳动者建立劳动关系,订立、履行、变更、解除或者终止劳动合同,适用本法。
 
  国家机关、事业单位、社会团体和与其建立劳动关系的劳动者,订立、履行、变更、解除或者终止劳动合同,依照本法执行。
 
  第三条 订立劳动合同,应当遵循合法、公平、平等自愿、协商一致、诚实信用的原则。
 
  依法订立的劳动合同具有约束力,用人单位与劳动者应当履行劳动合同约定的义务。
 
  第四条 用人单位应当依法建立和完善劳动规章制度,保障劳动者享有劳动权利、履行劳动义务。
 
  用人单位在制定、修改或者决定有关劳动报酬、工作时间、休息休假、劳动安全卫生、保险福利、职工培训、劳动纪律以及劳动定额管理等直接涉及劳动者切身利益的规章制度或者重大事项时,应当经职工代表大会或者全体职工讨论,提出方案和意见,与工会或者职工代表平等协商确定。
 
  在规章制度和重大事项决定实施过程中,工会或者职工认为不适当的,有权向用人单位提出,通过协商予以修改完善。
 
  用人单位应当将直接涉及劳动者切身利益的规章制度和重大事项决定公示,或者告知劳动者。
 
  第五条 县级以上人民政府劳动行政部门会同工会和企业方面代表,建立健全协调劳动关系三方机制,共同研究解决有关劳动关系的重大问题。
 
  第六条 工会应当帮助、指导劳动者与用人单位依法订立和履行劳动合同,并与用人单位建立集体协商机制,维护劳动者的合法权益。

第二章 劳动合同的订立 

  第七条 用人单位自用工之日起即与劳动者建立劳动关系。用人单位应当建立职工名册备查。
 
  第八条 用人单位招用劳动者时,应当如实告知劳动者工作内容、工作条件、工作地点、职业危害、安全生产状况、劳动报酬,以及劳动者要求了解的其他情况;用人单位有权了解劳动者与劳动合同直接相关的基本情况,劳动者应当如实说明。
 
  第九条 用人单位招用劳动者,不得扣押劳动者的居民身份证和其他证件,不得要求劳动者提供担保或者以其他名义向劳动者收取财物。
 
  第十条 建立劳动关系,应当订立书面劳动合同。
 
  已建立劳动关系,未同时订立书面劳动合同的,应当自用工之日起一个月内订立书面劳动合同。
 
  用人单位与劳动者在用工前订立劳动合同的,劳动关系自用工之日起建立。
 
  第十一条 用人单位未在用工的同时订立书面劳动合同,与劳动者约定的劳动报酬不明确的,新招用的劳动者的劳动报酬按照集体合同规定的标准执行;没有集体合同或者集体合同未规定的,实行同工同酬。
 
  第十二条 劳动合同分为固定期限劳动合同、无固定期限劳动合同和以完成一定工作任务为期限的劳动合同。
 
  第十三条 固定期限劳动合同,是指用人单位与劳动者约定合同终止时间的劳动合同。
 
  用人单位与劳动者协商一致,可以订立固定期限劳动合同。
 
  第十四条 无固定期限劳动合同,是指用人单位与劳动者约定无确定终止时间的劳动合同。
 
  用人单位与劳动者协商一致,可以订立无固定期限劳动合同。有下列情形之一,劳动者提出或者同意续订、订立劳动合同的,除劳动者提出订立固定期限劳动合同外,应当订立无固定期限劳动合同:
 
  (一)劳动者在该用人单位连续工作满十年的;
 
  (二)用人单位初次实行劳动合同制度或者国有企业改制重新订立劳动合同时,劳动者在该用人单位连续工作满十年且距法定退休年龄不足十年的;
 
  (三)连续订立二次固定期限劳动合同,且劳动者没有本法第三十九条和第四十条第一项、第二项规定的情形,续订劳动合同的。
 
  用人单位自用工之日起满一年不与劳动者订立书面劳动合同的,视为用人单位与劳动者已订立无固定期限劳动合同。
 
  第十五条 以完成一定工作任务为期限的劳动合同,是指用人单位与劳动者约定以某项工作的完成为合同期限的劳动合同。
 
  用人单位与劳动者协商一致,可以订立以完成一定工作任务为期限的劳动合同。
 
  第十六条 劳动合同由用人单位与劳动者协商一致,并经用人单位与劳动者在劳动合同文本上签字或者盖章生效。
 
  劳动合同文本由用人单位和劳动者各执一份。
 
  第十七条 劳动合同应当具备以下条款:
 
  (一)用人单位的名称、住所和法定代表人或者主要负责人;
 
  (二)劳动者的姓名、住址和居民身份证或者其他有效身份证件号码;
 
  (三)劳动合同期限;
 
  (四)工作内容和工作地点;
 
  (五)工作时间和休息休假;
 
  (六)劳动报酬;
 
  (七)社会保险;
 
  (八)劳动保护、劳动条件和职业危害防护;
 
  (九)法律、法规规定应当纳入劳动合同的其他事项。
 
  劳动合同除前款规定的必备条款外,用人单位与劳动者可以约定试用期、培训、保守秘密、补充保险和福利待遇等其他事项。
 
  第十八条 劳动合同对劳动报酬和劳动条件等标准约定不明确,引发争议的,用人单位与劳动者可以重新协商;协商不成的,适用集体合同规定;没有集体合同或者集体合同未规定劳动报酬的,实行同工同酬;没有集体合同或者集体合同未规定劳动条件等标准的,适用国家有关规定。
 
  第十九条 劳动合同期限三个月以上不满一年的,试用期不得超过一个月;劳动合同期限一年以上不满三年的,试用期不得超过二个月;三年以上固定期限和无固定期限的劳动合同,试用期不得超过六个月。
 
  同一用人单位与同一劳动者只能约定一次试用期。
 
  以完成一定工作任务为期限的劳动合同或者劳动合同期限不满三个月的,不得约定试用期。
 
  试用期包含在劳动合同期限内。劳动合同仅约定试用期的,试用期不成立,该期限为劳动合同期限。
 
  第二十条 劳动者在试用期的工资不得低于本单位相同岗位最低档工资或者劳动合同约定工资的百分之八十,并不得低于用人单位所在地的最低工资标准。
 
  第二十一条 在试用期中,除劳动者有本法第三十九条和第四十条第一项、第二项规定的情形外,用人单位不得解除劳动合同。用人单位在试用期解除劳动合同的,应当向劳动者说明理由。
 
  第二十二条 用人单位为劳动者提供专项培训费用,对其进行专业技术培训的,可以与该劳动者订立协议,约定服务期。
 
  劳动者违反服务期约定的,应当按照约定向用人单位支付违约金。违约金的数额不得超过用人单位提供的培训费用。用人单位要求劳动者支付的违约金不得超过服务期尚未履行部分所应分摊的培训费用。
 
  用人单位与劳动者约定服务期的,不影响按照正常的工资调整机制提高劳动者在服务期期间的劳动报酬。
 
  第二十三条 用人单位与劳动者可以在劳动合同中约定保守用人单位的商业秘密和与知识产权相关的保密事项。
 
  对负有保密义务的劳动者,用人单位可以在劳动合同或者保密协议中与劳动者约定竞业限制条款,并约定在解除或者终止劳动合同后,在竞业限制期限内按月给予劳动者经济补偿。劳动者违反竞业限制约定的,应当按照约定向用人单位支付违约金。
 
  第二十四条 竞业限制的人员限于用人单位的高级管理人员、高级技术人员和其他负有保密义务的人员。竞业限制的范围、地域、期限由用人单位与劳动者约定,竞业限制的约定不得违反法律、法规的规定。
 
  在解除或者终止劳动合同后,前款规定的人员到与本单位生产或者经营同类产品、从事同类业务的有竞争关系的其他用人单位,或者自己开业生产或者经营同类产品、从事同类业务的竞业限制期限,不得超过二年。
 
  第二十五条 除本法第二十二条和第二十三条规定的情形外,用人单位不得与劳动者约定由劳动者承担违约金。
 
  第二十六条 下列劳动合同无效或者部分无效:
 
  (一)以欺诈、胁迫的手段或者乘人之危,使对方在违背真实意思的情况下订立或者变更劳动合同的;
 
  (二)用人单位免除自己的法定责任、排除劳动者权利的;
 
  (三)违反法律、行政法规强制性规定的。
 
  对劳动合同的无效或者部分无效有争议的,由劳动争议仲裁机构或者人民法院确认。
 
  第二十七条 劳动合同部分无效,不影响其他部分效力的,其他部分仍然有效。
 
  第二十八条 劳动合同被确认无效,劳动者已付出劳动的,用人单位应当向劳动者支付劳动报酬。劳动报酬的数额,参照本单位相同或者相近岗位劳动者的劳动报酬确定。 

第三章 劳动合同的履行和变更 

  第二十九条 用人单位与劳动者应当按照劳动合同的约定,全面履行各自的义务。
 
  第三十条 用人单位应当按照劳动合同约定和国家规定,向劳动者及时足额支付劳动报酬。
 
  用人单位拖欠或者未足额支付劳动报酬的,劳动者可以依法向当地人民法院申请支付令,人民法院应当依法发出支付令。
 
  第三十一条 用人单位应当严格执行劳动定额标准,不得强迫或者变相强迫劳动者加班。用人单位安排加班的,应当按照国家有关规定向劳动者支付加班费。
 
  第三十二条 劳动者拒绝用人单位管理人员违章指挥、强令冒险作业的,不视为违反劳动合同。
 
  劳动者对危害生命安全和身体健康的劳动条件,有权对用人单位提出批评、检举和控告。
 
  第三十三条 用人单位变更名称、法定代表人、主要负责人或者投资人等事项,不影响劳动合同的履行。
 
  第三十四条 用人单位发生合并或者分立等情况,原劳动合同继续有效,劳动合同由承继其权利和义务的用人单位继续履行。
 
  第三十五条 用人单位与劳动者协商一致,可以变更劳动合同约定的内容。变更劳动合同,应当采用书面形式。
 
  变更后的劳动合同文本由用人单位和劳动者各执一份。

第四章 劳动合同的解除和终止 

  第三十六条 用人单位与劳动者协商一致,可以解除劳动合同。
 
  第三十七条 劳动者提前三十日以书面形式通知用人单位,可以解除劳动合同。劳动者在试用期内提前三日通知用人单位,可以解除劳动合同。
 
  第三十八条 用人单位有下列情形之一的,劳动者可以解除劳动合同:
 
  (一)未按照劳动合同约定提供劳动保护或者劳动条件的;
 
  (二)未及时足额支付劳动报酬的;
 
  (三)未依法为劳动者缴纳社会保险费的;
 
  (四)用人单位的规章制度违反法律、法规的规定,损害劳动者权益的;
 
  (五)因本法第二十六条第一款规定的情形致使劳动合同无效的;
 
  (六)法律、行政法规规定劳动者可以解除劳动合同的其他情形。
 
  用人单位以暴力、威胁或者非法限制人身自由的手段强迫劳动者劳动的,或者用人单位违章指挥、强令冒险作业危及劳动者人身安全的,劳动者可以立即解除劳动合同,不需事先告知用人单位。
 
  第三十九条 劳动者有下列情形之一的,用人单位可以解除劳动合同:
 
  (一)在试用期间被证明不符合录用条件的;
 
  (二)严重违反用人单位的规章制度的;
 
  (三)严重失职,营私舞弊,给用人单位造成重大损害的;
 
  (四)劳动者同时与其他用人单位建立劳动关系,对完成本单位的工作任务造成严重影响,或者经用人单位提出,拒不改正的;
 
  (五)因本法第二十六条第一款第一项规定的情形致使劳动合同无效的;
 
  (六)被依法追究刑事责任的。
 
  第四十条 有下列情形之一的,用人单位提前三十日以书面形式通知劳动者本人或者额外支付劳动者一个月工资后,可以解除劳动合同:
 
  (一)劳动者患病或者非因工负伤,在规定的医疗期满后不能从事原工作,也不能从事由用人单位另行安排的工作的;
 
  (二)劳动者不能胜任工作,经过培训或者调整工作岗位,仍不能胜任工作的;
 
  (三)劳动合同订立时所依据的客观情况发生重大变化,致使劳动合同无法履行,经用人单位与劳动者协商,未能就变更劳动合同内容达成协议的。
 
  第四十一条 有下列情形之一,需要裁减人员二十人以上或者裁减不足二十人但占企业职工总数百分之十以上的,用人单位提前三十日向工会或者全体职工说明情况,听取工会或者职工的意见后,裁减人员方案经向劳动行政部门报告,可以裁减人员:
 
  (一)依照企业破产法规定进行重整的;
 
  (二)生产经营发生严重困难的;
 
  (三)企业转产、重大技术革新或者经营方式调整,经变更劳动合同后,仍需裁减人员的;
 
  (四)其他因劳动合同订立时所依据的客观经济情况发生重大变化,致使劳动合同无法履行的。
 
  裁减人员时,应当优先留用下列人员:
 
  (一)与本单位订立较长期限的固定期限劳动合同的;
 
  (二)与本单位订立无固定期限劳动合同的;
 
  (三)家庭无其他就业人员,有需要扶养的老人或者未成年人的。
 
  用人单位依照本条第一款规定裁减人员,在六个月内重新招用人员的,应当通知被裁减的人员,并在同等条件下优先招用被裁减的人员。
 
  第四十二条 劳动者有下列情形之一的,用人单位不得依照本法第四十条、第四十一条的规定解除劳动合同:
 
  (一)从事接触职业病危害作业的劳动者未进行离岗前职业健康检查,或者疑似职业病病人在诊断或者医学观察期间的;
 
  (二)在本单位患职业病或者因工负伤并被确认丧失或者部分丧失劳动能力的;
 
  (三)患病或者非因工负伤,在规定的医疗期内的;
 
  (四)女职工在孕期、产期、哺乳期的;
 
  (五)在本单位连续工作满十五年,且距法定退休年龄不足五年的;
 
  (六)法律、行政法规规定的其他情形。
 
  第四十三条 用人单位单方解除劳动合同,应当事先将理由通知工会。用人单位违反法律、行政法规规定或者劳动合同约定的,工会有权要求用人单位纠正。用人单位应当研究工会的意见,并将处理结果书面通知工会。
 
  第四十四条 有下列情形之一的,劳动合同终止:
 
  (一)劳动合同期满的;
 
  (二)劳动者开始依法享受基本养老保险待遇的;
 
  (三)劳动者死亡,或者被人民法院宣告死亡或者宣告失踪的;
 
  (四)用人单位被依法宣告破产的;
 
  (五)用人单位被吊销营业执照、责令关闭、撤销或者用人单位决定提前解散的;
 
  (六)法律、行政法规规定的其他情形。
 
  第四十五条 劳动合同期满,有本法第四十二条规定情形之一的,劳动合同应当续延至相应的情形消失时终止。但是,本法第四十二条第二项规定丧失或者部分丧失劳动能力劳动者的劳动合同的终止,按照国家有关工伤保险的规定执行。
 
  第四十六条 有下列情形之一的,用人单位应当向劳动者支付经济补偿:
 
  (一)劳动者依照本法第三十八条规定解除劳动合同的;
 
  (二)用人单位依照本法第三十六条规定向劳动者提出解除劳动合同并与劳动者协商一致解除劳动合同的;
 
  (三)用人单位依照本法第四十条规定解除劳动合同的;
 
  (四)用人单位依照本法第四十一条第一款规定解除劳动合同的;
 
  (五)除用人单位维持或者提高劳动合同约定条件续订劳动合同,劳动者不同意续订的情形外,依照本法第四十四条第一项规定终止固定期限劳动合同的;
 
  (六)依照本法第四十四条第四项、第五项规定终止劳动合同的;
 
  (七)法律、行政法规规定的其他情形。
 
  第四十七条 经济补偿按劳动者在本单位工作的年限,每满一年支付一个月工资的标准向劳动者支付。六个月以上不满一年的,按一年计算;不满六个月的,向劳动者支付半个月工资的经济补偿。
 
  劳动者月工资高于用人单位所在直辖市、设区的市级人民政府公布的本地区上年度职工月平均工资三倍的,向其支付经济补偿的标准按职工月平均工资三倍的数额支付,向其支付经济补偿的年限最高不超过十二年。
 
  本条所称月工资是指劳动者在劳动合同解除或者终止前十二个月的平均工资。
 
  第四十八条 用人单位违反本法规定解除或者终止劳动合同,劳动者要求继续履行劳动合同的,用人单位应当继续履行;劳动者不要求继续履行劳动合同或者劳动合同已经不能继续履行的,用人单位应当依照本法第八十七条规定支付赔偿金。
 
  第四十九条 国家采取措施,建立健全劳动者社会保险关系跨地区转移接续制度。
 
  第五十条 用人单位应当在解除或者终止劳动合同时出具解除或者终止劳动合同的证明,并在十五日内为劳动者办理档案和社会保险关系转移手续。
 
  劳动者应当按照双方约定,办理工作交接。用人单位依照本法有关规定应当向劳动者支付经济补偿的,在办结工作交接时支付。
 
  用人单位对已经解除或者终止的劳动合同的文本,至少保存二年备查。

第五章 特别规定 

第一节 集体合同 

  第五十一条 企业职工一方与用人单位通过平等协商,可以就劳动报酬、工作时间、休息休假、劳动安全卫生、保险福利等事项订立集体合同。集体合同草案应当提交职工代表大会或者全体职工讨论通过。
 
  集体合同由工会代表企业职工一方与用人单位订立;尚未建立工会的用人单位,由上级工会指导劳动者推举的代表与用人单位订立。
 
  第五十二条 企业职工一方与用人单位可以订立劳动安全卫生、女职工权益保护、工资调整机制等专项集体合同。
 
  第五十三条 在县级以下区域内,建筑业、采矿业、餐饮服务业等行业可以由工会与企业方面代表订立行业性集体合同,或者订立区域性集体合同。
 
  第五十四条 集体合同订立后,应当报送劳动行政部门;劳动行政部门自收到集体合同文本之日起十五日内未提出异议的,集体合同即行生效。
 
  依法订立的集体合同对用人单位和劳动者具有约束力。行业性、区域性集体合同对当地本行业、本区域的用人单位和劳动者具有约束力。
 
  第五十五条 集体合同中劳动报酬和劳动条件等标准不得低于当地人民政府规定的最低标准;用人单位与劳动者订立的劳动合同中劳动报酬和劳动条件等标准不得低于集体合同规定的标准。
 
  第五十六条 用人单位违反集体合同,侵犯职工劳动权益的,工会可以依法要求用人单位承担责任;因履行集体合同发生争议,经协商解决不成的,工会可以依法申请仲裁、提起诉讼。

第二节 劳务派遣 

  第五十七条 劳务派遣单位应当依照公司法的有关规定设立,注册资本不得少于五十万元。
 
  第五十八条 劳务派遣单位是本法所称用人单位,应当履行用人单位对劳动者的义务。劳务派遣单位与被派遣劳动者订立的劳动合同,除应当载明本法第十七条规定的事项外,还应当载明被派遣劳动者的用工单位以及派遣期限、工作岗位等情况。
 
  劳务派遣单位应当与被派遣劳动者订立二年以上的固定期限劳动合同,按月支付劳动报酬;被派遣劳动者在无工作期间,劳务派遣单位应当按照所在地人民政府规定的最低工资标准,向其按月支付报酬。
 
  第五十九条 劳务派遣单位派遣劳动者应当与接受以劳务派遣形式用工的单位(以下称用工单位)订立劳务派遣协议。劳务派遣协议应当约定派遣岗位和人员数量、派遣期限、劳动报酬和社会保险费的数额与支付方式以及违反协议的责任。
 
  用工单位应当根据工作岗位的实际需要与劳务派遣单位确定派遣期限,不得将连续用工期限分割订立数个短期劳务派遣协议。
 
  第六十条 劳务派遣单位应当将劳务派遣协议的内容告知被派遣劳动者。
 
  劳务派遣单位不得克扣用工单位按照劳务派遣协议支付给被派遣劳动者的劳动报酬。
 
  劳务派遣单位和用工单位不得向被派遣劳动者收取费用。
 
  第六十一条 劳务派遣单位跨地区派遣劳动者的,被派遣劳动者享有的劳动报酬和劳动条件,按照用工单位所在地的标准执行。
 
  第六十二条 用工单位应当履行下列义务:
 
  (一)执行国家劳动标准,提供相应的劳动条件和劳动保护;
 
  (二)告知被派遣劳动者的工作要求和劳动报酬;
 
  (三)支付加班费、绩效奖金,提供与工作岗位相关的福利待遇;
 
  (四)对在岗被派遣劳动者进行工作岗位所必需的培训;
 
  (五)连续用工的,实行正常的工资调整机制。
 
  用工单位不得将被派遣劳动者再派遣到其他用人单位。
 
  第六十三条 被派遣劳动者享有与用工单位的劳动者同工同酬的权利。用工单位无同类岗位劳动者的,参照用工单位所在地相同或者相近岗位劳动者的劳动报酬确定。
 
  第六十四条 被派遣劳动者有权在劳务派遣单位或者用工单位依法参加或者组织工会,维护自身的合法权益。
 
  第六十五条 被派遣劳动者可以依照本法第三十六条、第三十八条的规定与劳务派遣单位解除劳动合同。
 
  被派遣劳动者有本法第三十九条和第四十条第一项、第二项规定情形的,用工单位可以将劳动者退回劳务派遣单位,劳务派遣单位依照本法有关规定,可以与劳动者解除劳动合同。
 
  第六十六条 劳务派遣一般在临时性、辅助性或者替代性的工作岗位上实施。
 
  第六十七条 用人单位不得设立劳务派遣单位向本单位或者所属单位派遣劳动者。 

第三节 非全日制用工 

  第六十八条 非全日制用工,是指以小时计酬为主,劳动者在同一用人单位一般平均每日工作时间不超过四小时,每周工作时间累计不超过二十四小时的用工形式。
 
  第六十九条 非全日制用工双方当事人可以订立口头协议。
 
  从事非全日制用工的劳动者可以与一个或者一个以上用人单位订立劳动合同;但是,后订立的劳动合同不得影响先订立的劳动合同的履行。
 
  第七十条 非全日制用工双方当事人不得约定试用期。
 
  第七十一条 非全日制用工双方当事人任何一方都可以随时通知对方终止用工。终止用工,用人单位不向劳动者支付经济补偿。
 
  第七十二条 非全日制用工小时计酬标准不得低于用人单位所在地人民政府规定的最低小时工资标准。
 
  非全日制用工劳动报酬结算支付周期最长不得超过十五日。

第六章 监督检查 

  第七十三条 国务院劳动行政部门负责全国劳动合同制度实施的监督管理。
 
  县级以上地方人民政府劳动行政部门负责本行政区域内劳动合同制度实施的监督管理。
 
  县级以上各级人民政府劳动行政部门在劳动合同制度实施的监督管理工作中,应当听取工会、企业方面代表以及有关行业主管部门的意见。
 
  第七十四条 县级以上地方人民政府劳动行政部门依法对下列实施劳动合同制度的情况进行监督检查:
 
  (一)用人单位制定直接涉及劳动者切身利益的规章制度及其执行的情况;
 
  (二)用人单位与劳动者订立和解除劳动合同的情况;
 
  (三)劳务派遣单位和用工单位遵守劳务派遣有关规定的情况;
 
  (四)用人单位遵守国家关于劳动者工作时间和休息休假规定的情况;
 
  (五)用人单位支付劳动合同约定的劳动报酬和执行最低工资标准的情况;
 
  (六)用人单位参加各项社会保险和缴纳社会保险费的情况;
 
  (七)法律、法规规定的其他劳动监察事项。
 
  第七十五条 县级以上地方人民政府劳动行政部门实施监督检查时,有权查阅与劳动合同、集体合同有关的材料,有权对劳动场所进行实地检查,用人单位和劳动者都应当如实提供有关情况和材料。
 
  劳动行政部门的工作人员进行监督检查,应当出示证件,依法行使职权,文明执法。
 
  第七十六条 县级以上人民政府建设、卫生、安全生产监督管理等有关主管部门在各自职责范围内,对用人单位执行劳动合同制度的情况进行监督管理。
 
  第七十七条 劳动者合法权益受到侵害的,有权要求有关部门依法处理,或者依法申请仲裁、提起诉讼。
 
  第七十八条 工会依法维护劳动者的合法权益,对用人单位履行劳动合同、集体合同的情况进行监督。用人单位违反劳动法律、法规和劳动合同、集体合同的,工会有权提出意见或者要求纠正;劳动者申请仲裁、提起诉讼的,工会依法给予支持和帮助。
 
  第七十九条 任何组织或者个人对违反本法的行为都有权举报,县级以上人民政府劳动行政部门应当及时核实、处理,并对举报有功人员给予奖励。

第七章 法律责任 

  第八十条 用人单位直接涉及劳动者切身利益的规章制度违反法律、法规规定的,由劳动行政部门责令改正,给予警告;给劳动者造成损害的,应当承担赔偿责任。
 
  第八十一条 用人单位提供的劳动合同文本未载明本法规定的劳动合同必备条款或者用人单位未将劳动合同文本交付劳动者的,由劳动行政部门责令改正;给劳动者造成损害的,应当承担赔偿责任。
 
  第八十二条 用人单位自用工之日起超过一个月不满一年未与劳动者订立书面劳动合同的,应当向劳动者每月支付二倍的工资。
 
  用人单位违反本法规定不与劳动者订立无固定期限劳动合同的,自应当订立无固定期限劳动合同之日起向劳动者每月支付二倍的工资。
 
  第八十三条 用人单位违反本法规定与劳动者约定试用期的,由劳动行政部门责令改正;违法约定的试用期已经履行的,由用人单位以劳动者试用期满月工资为标准,按已经履行的超过法定试用期的期间向劳动者支付赔偿金。
 
  第八十四条 用人单位违反本法规定,扣押劳动者居民身份证等证件的,由劳动行政部门责令限期退还劳动者本人,并依照有关法律规定给予处罚。
 
  用人单位违反本法规定,以担保或者其他名义向劳动者收取财物的,由劳动行政部门责令限期退还劳动者本人,并以每人五百元以上二千元以下的标准处以罚款;给劳动者造成损害的,应当承担赔偿责任。
 
  劳动者依法解除或者终止劳动合同,用人单位扣押劳动者档案或者其他物品的,依照前款规定处罚。
 
  第八十五条 用人单位有下列情形之一的,由劳动行政部门责令限期支付劳动报酬、加班费或者经济补偿;劳动报酬低于当地最低工资标准的,应当支付其差额部分;逾期不支付的,责令用人单位按应付金额百分之五十以上百分之一百以下的标准向劳动者加付赔偿金:
 
  (一)未按照劳动合同的约定或者国家规定及时足额支付劳动者劳动报酬的;
 
  (二)低于当地最低工资标准支付劳动者工资的;
 
  (三)安排加班不支付加班费的;
 
  (四)解除或者终止劳动合同,未依照本法规定向劳动者支付经济补偿的。
 
  第八十六条 劳动合同依照本法第二十六条规定被确认无效,给对方造成损害的,有过错的一方应当承担赔偿责任。
 
  第八十七条 用人单位违反本法规定解除或者终止劳动合同的,应当依照本法第四十七条规定的经济补偿标准的二倍向劳动者支付赔偿金。
 
  第八十八条 用人单位有下列情形之一的,依法给予行政处罚;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任;给劳动者造成损害的,应当承担赔偿责任:
 
  (一)以暴力、威胁或者非法限制人身自由的手段强迫劳动的;
 
  (二)违章指挥或者强令冒险作业危及劳动者人身安全的;
 
  (三)侮辱、体罚、殴打、非法搜查或者拘禁劳动者的;
 
  (四)劳动条件恶劣、环境污染严重,给劳动者身心健康造成严重损害的。
 
  第八十九条 用人单位违反本法规定未向劳动者出具解除或者终止劳动合同的书面证明,由劳动行政部门责令改正;给劳动者造成损害的,应当承担赔偿责任。
 
  第九十条 劳动者违反本法规定解除劳动合同,或者违反劳动合同中约定的保密义务或者竞业限制,给用人单位造成损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
 
  第九十一条 用人单位招用与其他用人单位尚未解除或者终止劳动合同的劳动者,给其他用人单位造成损失的,应当承担连带赔偿责任。
 
  第九十二条 劳务派遣单位违反本法规定的,由劳动行政部门和其他有关主管部门责令改正;情节严重的,以每人一千元以上五千元以下的标准处以罚款,并由工商行政管理部门吊销营业执照;给被派遣劳动者造成损害的,劳务派遣单位与用工单位承担连带赔偿责任。
 
  第九十三条 对不具备合法经营资格的用人单位的违法犯罪行为,依法追究法律责任;劳动者已经付出劳动的,该单位或者其出资人应当依照本法有关规定向劳动者支付劳动报酬、经济补偿、赔偿金;给劳动者造成损害的,应当承担赔偿责任。
 
  第九十四条 个人承包经营违反本法规定招用劳动者,给劳动者造成损害的,发包的组织与个人承包经营者承担连带赔偿责任。
 
  第九十五条 劳动行政部门和其他有关主管部门及其工作人员玩忽职守、不履行法定职责,或者违法行使职权,给劳动者或者用人单位造成损害的,应当承担赔偿责任;对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依法给予行政处分;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

第八章 附  则 

  第九十六条 事业单位与实行聘用制的工作人员订立、履行、变更、解除或者终止劳动合同,法律、行政法规或者国务院另有规定的,依照其规定;未作规定的,依照本法有关规定执行。
 
  第九十七条 本法施行前已依法订立且在本法施行之日存续的劳动合同,继续履行;本法第十四条第二款第三项规定连续订立固定期限劳动合同的次数,自本法施行后续订固定期限劳动合同时开始计算。
 
  本法施行前已建立劳动关系,尚未订立书面劳动合同的,应当自本法施行之日起一个月内订立。

英文版

  LAW OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ON EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS

  Adopted at the 28th Session of the Standing Committee of the 10th National People’s Congress on June 29, 2007

  Effective from January 1, 2008

  By Baker & MCKenzie

CHAPTER 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS

  Article 1

  This Law has been formulated in order to improve the employment contract system, to specify the rights and obligations of the parties to employment contracts, to protect the lawful rights and interests of Employees and to build and develop harmonious and stable employment relationships.

  Article 2

  This Law governs the establishment of employment relationships between, and the conclusion, performance, amendment, termination and ending of employment contracts by, organizations such as enterprises, individual economic organizations and private non-enterprise units in the People’s Republic of China (“Employers”) on the one hand and Employees in the People’s Republic of China on the other hand.

  The conclusion, performance, amendment, termination and ending of employment contracts by state authorities, institutions or social organizations on the one hand and Employees with whom they establish employment relationships on the other hand, shall be handled pursuant to this Law.

  Article 3

  The conclusion of employment contracts shall comply with the principles of lawfulness, fairness, equality, free will, negotiated consensus and good faith.

  A lawfully concluded employment contract is binding, and both the Employer and the Employee shall perform their respective obligations stipulated therein.

  Article 4

  Employers shall establish and improve internal rules and regulations, so as to ensure that Employees enjoy their labor rights and perform their labor obligations.

  When an Employer formulates, revises or decides on rules and regulations, or material matters, that have a direct bearing on the immediate interests of its Employees, such as those concerning compensation, work hours, rest, leave, work safety and hygiene, insurance, benefits, employee training, work discipline or work quota management, the same shall be discussed by the employee representative congress or all the employees. The employee representative congress or all the employees, as the case may be, shall put forward a proposal and comments, whereupon the matter shall be determined through consultations with the Trade union or employee representatives conducted on a basis of equality.

  If, during the implementation of an Employer’s rule or regulation or decision on a crucial matter, the Trade union or an employee is of the opinion that the same is inappropriate, it or he is entitled to communicate such opinion to the Employer, and the rule, regulation or decision shall be improved by making amendments after consultations.

  Rules and regulations, and decisions on material matters, that have a direct bearing on the immediate interests of Employees shall be made public or be communicated to the Employees by the Employer.

  Article 5

  The labor administration authorities of People’s Governments at the county level and above, together with the Trade union and enterprise representatives, shall establish a comprehensive tri-partite mechanism for the coordination of employment relationships, in order to jointly study and resolve major issues concerning employment relationships.

  Article 6

  A Trade union shall assist and guide Employees in the conclusion of employment contracts with their Employer and the performance thereof in accordance with the law, and establish a collective bargaining mechanism with the Employer in order to safeguard the lawful rights and interests of Employees.

CHAPTER 2 CONCLUSION OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS


  Article 7

  An Employer’s employment relationship with a Employee is established on the date it starts using the Employee. An Employer shall keep a register of employees, for reference purposes.

  Article 8

  When an Employer hires a Employee, it shall truthfully inform him as to the content of the work, the working conditions, the place of work, occupational hazards, production safety conditions, labor compensation and other matters which the Employee requests to be informed about. The Employer has the right to learn from the Employee basic information which directly relates to the employment contract, and the Employee shall truthfully provide the same.

  Article 9

  When hiring a Employee, an Employer may not retain the Employee’s resident ID card or other papers, nor may it require him to provide security or collect property from him under some other guise.

  Article 10

  To establish an employment relationship, a written employment contract shall be concluded.

  In the event that no written employment contract was concluded at the time of establishment of an employment relationship, a written employment contract shall be concluded within one month after the date on which the Employer starts using the Employee.

  Where an Employer and a Employee conclude an employment contract before the Employer starts using the Employee, the employment relationship shall be established on the date on which the Employer starts using the Employee.

  Article 11

  In the event that an Employer fails to conclude a written employment contract with a Employee at the time its starts to use him, and it is not clear what labor compensation was agreed upon with the Employee, the labor compensation of the new Employee shall be decided pursuant to the rate specified in the collective contract; where there is no collective contract or the collective contract is silent on the matter, equal pay shall be given for equal work.

  Article 12

  Employment contracts are divided into fixed-term employment contracts, open-ended employment contracts and employment contracts to expire upon completion of a certain job.

  Article 13

  A “fixed-term employment contract” is an employment contract whose ending date is agreed upon by the Employer and the Employee.

  An Employer and a Employee may conclude a fixed-term employment contract upon reaching a negotiated consensus.

  Article 14

  An “open-ended employment contract” is an employment contract for which the Employer and the Employee have agreed not to stipulate a definite ending date.

  An Employer and a Employee may conclude an open-ended employment contract upon reaching a negotiated consensus. If a Employee proposes or agrees to renew his employment contract or to conclude an employment contract in any of the following circumstances, an open-ended employment contract shall be concluded, unless the Employee requests the conclusion of a fixed-term employment contract:

  (1) The Employee has been working for the Employer for a consecutive period of not less than 10 years;

  (2) when his Employer introduces the employment contract system or the state owned enterprise that employs him re-concludes its employment contracts as a result of restructuring, the Employee has been working for the Employer for a consecutive period of not less than 10 years and is less than 10 years away from his legal retirement age; or

  (3) prior to the renewal, a fixed-term employment contract was concluded on two consecutive occasions and the Employee is not characterized by any of the circumstances set forth in Article 39 and items (1) and (2) of Article 40 hereof.

  If an Employer fails to conclude a written employment contract with a Employee within one year from the date on which it starts using the Employee, the Employer and the Employee shall be deemed to have concluded an open-ended employment contract.

  Article 15

  An “employment contract with a term to expire upon completion of a certain job” is an employment contract in which the Employer and the Employee have agreed that the completion of a certain job is the term of the contract.

  An Employer and a Employee may, upon reaching a negotiated consensus, conclude an employment contract with a term to expire upon completion of a certain job.

  Article 16

  An employment contract shall become effective when the Employer and the Employee have reached a negotiated consensus thereon and each of them has signed or sealed the text of such contract.

  The Employer and the Employee shall each hold one copy of the employment contract.

  Article 17

  An employment contract shall specify the following matters:

  (1) The name, domicile and legal representative or main person in charge of the Employer;

  (2) The name, domicile and number of the resident ID card or other valid identity document of the Employee;

  (3) The term of the employment contract;

  (4) The job des cription and the place of work;

  (5) Working hours, rest and leave;

  (6) Labor compensation;

  (7) Social insurance;

  (8) Labor protection, working conditions and protection against occupational hazards; and

  (9) Other matters which laws and statutes require to be included in employment contracts.

  In addition to the requisite terms mentioned above, an Employer and a Employee may agree to stipulate other matters in the employment contract, such as probation period, training, confidentiality, supplementary insurance and benefits, etc.

  Article 18

  If a dispute arises due to the fact that the rate or standards for labor compensation or working conditions, etc. are not explicitly specified in the employment contract, the Employer and the Employee may renegotiate. If the negotiations are unsuccessful, the provisions of the collective contract shall apply. If there is no collective contract or the collective contract is silent on the issue of labor compensation, equal pay shall be given for equal work; if there is no collective contract or the collective contract is silent on the issue of working conditions, the relevant regulations of the state shall apply.

  Article 19

  If an employment contract has a term of not less than three months but less than one year, the probation period may not exceed one month; if an employment contract has a term of more than one year and less than three years, the probation period may not exceed two months; and if an employment contract has a term of not less than three years or is open-ended, the probation period may not exceed six months.

  An Employer may stipulate only one probation period with any given Employee.

  No probation period may be specified in an employment contract with a term to expire upon completion of a certain job or an employment contract with a term of less than three months.

  The probation period shall be included in the term of the employment contract. If an employment contract provides for a probation period only, then there is no probation period and the term concerned shall be the term of the employment contract.

  Article 20

  The wages of a Employee on probation may not be less than the lowest wage level for the same job with the Employer or less than 80 percent of the wage agreed upon in the employment contract, and may not be less than the minimum wage rate in the place where the Employer is located.

  Article 21

  An Employer may not terminate an employment contract during the probation period unless the Employee is characterized by any of the circumstances set forth in Article 39 and items (1) and (2) of Article 40 hereof. If an Employer terminates an employment contract during the probation period, it shall explain the reasons to the Employee.

  Article 22

  If an Employer provides special funding for a Employee’s training and gives him professional technical training, it may conclude an agreement specifying a term of service with such Employee.

  If the Employee breaches the agreement on the term of service, he shall pay liquidated damages to the Employer as agreed. The measure of the liquidated damages may not exceed the training expenses paid by the Employer. The liquidated damages that the Employer requires the Employee to pay may not exceed the portion of the training expenses allocable to the unperformed portion of the term of service.

  The reaching of agreement on a term of service between the Employer and the Employee does not affect the raising of the Employee’s labor compensation during the term of service according to the normal wage adjustment mechanism.

  Article 23

  An Employer and a Employee may include in their employment contract provisions on confidentiality matters relating to maintaining the confidentiality of the trade secrets of the Employer and to intellectual property.

  If a Employee has a confidentiality obligation, the Employer may agree with the Employee on competition restriction provisions in the employment contract or confidentiality agreement, and stipulate that the Employer shall pay financial compensation to the Employee on a monthly basis during the term of the competition restriction after the termination or ending of the employment contract. If the Employee breaches the competition restriction provisions, he shall pay liquidated damages to the Employer as stipulated.

  Article 24

  The personnel subject to competition restrictions shall be limited to the Employer’s senior management, senior technicians and other personnel with a confidentiality obligation. The scope, territory and term of the competition restrictions shall be agreed upon by the Employer and the Employee, and such agreement shall not violate laws and regulations.

  The term, counted from the termination or ending of the employment contract, for which a person as mentioned in the preceding paragraph is subject to competition restrictions in terms of his working for a competing Employer that produces the same type of products or is engaged in the same type of business as his current Employer, or in terms of his establishing his own business to produce the same type of products or engage in the same type of business, shall not exceed two years.

  Article 25

  With the exception of the circumstances specified in Articles 22 and 23 hereof, an Employer may not stipulate with a Employee provisions on the bearing of liquidated damages by the Employee.

  Article 26

  An employment contract shall be invalid or partially invalid if:

  (1) A party uses such means as deception or coercion, or takes advantage of the other party’s difficulties, to cause the other party to conclude an employment contract, or to make an amendment thereto, that is contrary to that party’s true intent;

  (2) The Employer disclaims its legal liability or denies the Employee his rights; or

  (3) Mandatory provisions of laws or administrative statutes are violated.

  If the invalidity or partial invalidity of the employment contract is disputed, it shall be confirmed by a labor dispute arbitration institution or a People’s Court.

  Article 27

  If certain provisions of an employment contract are invalid and such invalidity does not affect the validity of the remaining provisions, the remaining provisions shall remain valid.

  Article 28

  If an employment contract is confirmed as invalid and the Employee has already performed labor, the Employer shall pay the Employee labor compensation. The amount of labor compensation shall be determined with reference to the labor compensation of Employees in the same or a similar position with the Employer.

CHAPTER 3 PERFORMANCE AND AMENDMENT OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS


  Article 29

  The Employer and the Employee shall each fully perform its/his obligations in accordance with the employment contract.

  Article 30

  Employers shall pay their Employees labor compensation on time and in full in accordance with the employment contracts and state regulations.

  If an Employer falls into arrears with the payment of labor compensation or fails to make payment in full, the Employee may, in accordance with the law, apply to the local People’s

  Court for an order to pay; and the People’s Court shall issue such order in accordance with the law.

  Article 31

  Employers shall strictly implement the work quota standards and may not compel or in a disguised manner compel Employees to work overtime. If an Employer arranges for a Employee to work overtime, it shall pay him overtime pay in accordance with the relevant state regulations.

  Article 32

  Employees shall not be held in breach of their employment contracts if they refuse to perform dangerous operations that are instructed in violation of regulations or peremptorily ordered by management staff of the Employer.

  Employees have the right to criticize, report to the authorities or lodge accusations against their Employers in respect of working conditions that endanger their lives or health.

  Article 33

  Changes such a change in the name, legal representative or main person in charge of, or an (the) investor(s) in, an Employer shall not affect the performance of its employment contracts.

  Article 34

  If an Employer is merged or divided, etc., its existing employment contracts shall remain valid and continue to be performed by the Employer(s) which succeeded to its rights and obligations

  Article 35

  An Employer and a Employee may amend the provisions of their employment contract if they so agree after consultations. Amendments to an employment contract shall be made in writing.

  The Employer and the Employee shall each hold one copy of the amended employment contract.

CHAPTER 4 TERMINATION AND ENDING OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS


  Article 36

  An Employer and a Employee may terminate their employment contract if they so agree after consultations.

  Article 37

  A Employee may terminate his employment contract upon 30 days’ prior written notice to his Employer. During his probation period, a Employee may terminate his employment contract by giving his Employer three days’ prior notice.

  Article 38

  A Employee may terminate his employment contract if his Employer:

  (1) Fails to provide the labor protection or working conditions specified in the employment contract;

  (2) Fails to pay labor compensation in full and on time;

  (3) Fails to pay the social insurance premiums for the Employee in accordance with the law;

  (4) Has rules and regulations that violate laws or regulations, thereby harming the Employee’s rights and interests;

  (5) causes the employment contract to be invalid due to a circumstance specified in the first paragraph of Article 26 hereof;

  (6) Gives rise to another circumstance in which laws or administrative statutes permit a Employee to terminate his employment contract.

  If an Employer uses violence, threats or unlawful restriction of personal freedom to compel a Employee to work, or if a Employee is instructed in violation of rules and regulations or peremptorily ordered by his Employer to perform dangerous operations which threaten his personal safety, the Employee may terminate his employment contract forthwith without giving prior notice to the Employer.

  Article 39

  An Employer may terminate an employment contract if the Employee:

  (1) Is proved during the probation period not to satisfy the conditions for employment;

  (2) Materially breaches the Employer’s rules and regulations;

  (3) Commits serious dereliction of duty or practices graft, causing substantial damage to the Employer;

  (4) has additionally established an employment relationship with another Employer which materially affects the completion of his tasks with the first-mentioned Employer, or he refuses to rectify the matter after the same is brought to his attention by the Employer;

  (5) causes the employment contract to be invalid due to the circumstance specified in item (1) of the first paragraph of Article 26 hereof; or

  (6) Has his criminal liability pursued in accordance with the law.

  Article 40

  An Employer may terminate an employment contract by giving the Employee himself 30 days’ prior written notice, or one month’s wage in lieu of notice, if:

  (1) after the set period of medical care for an illness or non-work-related injury, the Employee can engage neither in his original work nor in other work arranged for him by his Employer;

  (2) The Employee is incompetent and remains incompetent after training or adjustment of his position; or

  (3) A major change in the objective circumstances relied upon at the time of conclusion of the employment contract renders it unperformable and, after consultations, the Employer and Employee are unable to reach agreement on amending the employment contract.

  Article 41

  If any of the following circumstances makes it necessary to reduce the workforce by 20 persons or more or by a number of persons that is less than 20 but accounts for 10 percent or more of the total number of the enterprise’s employees, the Employer may reduce the workforce after it has explained the circumstances to its Trade union or to all of its employees 30 days in advance, has considered the opinions of the Trade union or the employees and has subsequently reported the workforce reduction plan to the labor administration department:

  (1) Restructuring pursuant to the Enterprise Bankruptcy Law;

  (2) Serious difficulties in production and/or business operations;

  (3) The enterprise switches production, introduces a major technological innovation or revises its business method, and, after amendment of employment contracts, still needs to reduce its workforce; or

  (4) Another major change in the objective economic circumstances relied upon at the time of conclusion of the employment contracts, rendering them unperformable.

  When reducing the workforce, the Employer shall retain with priority persons:

  (1) Who have concluded with the Employer fixed-term employment contracts with a relatively long term;

  (2) Who have concluded open-ended employment contracts with the Employer; or

  (3) Who are the only ones in their families to be employed and whose families have an elderly person or a minor for whom they need to provide.

  If an Employer that has reduced its workforce pursuant to the first paragraph hereof hires again within six months, it shall give notice to the persons dismissed at the time of the reduction and, all things being equal, hire them on a preferential basis.

  Article 42

  An Employer may not terminate an employment contract pursuant to Article

  40 or Article 41 hereof if the Employee:

  (1) is engaged in operations exposing him to occupational disease hazards and has not undergone a pre-departure occupational health check-up, or is suspected of having contracted an occupational disease and is being diagnosed or under medical observation;

  (2) Has been confirmed as having lost or partially lost his capacity to work due to an occupational disease contracted or a work-related injury sustained with the Employer;

  (3) Has contracted an illness or sustained a non-work-related injury, and the set period of medical care therefore has not expired;

  (4) Is a female employee in her pregnancy, confinement or nursing period;

  (5) Has been working for the Employer continuously for not less than 15 years and is less than 5 years away from his legal retirement age;

  (6) Finds himself in other circumstances stipulated in laws or administrative statutes.

  Article 43

  When an Employer is to terminate an employment contract unilaterally, it shall give the Trade union advance notice of the reason therefore. If the Employer violates laws, administrative statutes or the employment contract, the Trade union has the right to demand that the Employer rectify the matter. The Employer shall study the Trade union’s opinions and notify the Trade union in writing as to the outcome of its handling of the matter.

  Article 44

  An employment contract shall end if:

  (1) Its term expires;

  (2) The Employee has commenced drawing his basic old age insurance pension in accordance with the law;

  (3) The Employee dies, or is declared dead or missing by a People’s Court;

  (4) The Employer is declared bankrupt;

  (5) The Employer has its business license revoked, is ordered to close or is closed down, or the Employer decides on early liquidation; or

  (6) Another circumstance specified in laws or administrative statutes arises.

  Article 45

  If an employment contract expires and any of the circumstances specified in

  Article 42 hereof applies, the term of the employment contract shall be extended until the relevant circumstance ceases to exist, at which point the contract shall end. However, matters relating to the ending of the employment contract of a Employee who has lost or partially lost his capacity to work as specified in item (2) of Article 42 hereof shall be handled in accordance with state regulations on work-related injury insurance.

  Article 46

  In any of the following circumstances, the Employer shall pay the Employee severance pay:

  (1) The employment contract is terminated by the Employee pursuant to Article 38 hereof;

  (2) The employment contract is terminated after such termination was proposed to the Employee by the Employer pursuant to Article 36 hereof and the parties reached agreement thereon after consultations;

  (3) The employment contract is terminated by the Employer pursuant to Article 40 hereof;

  (4) The employment contract is terminated by the Employer pursuant to the first paragraph of Article 41 hereof;

  (5) The employment contract is a fixed–term contract that ends pursuant to item (1) of

  Article 44 hereof, unless the Employee does not agree to renew the contract even though the conditions offered by the Employer are the same as or better than those stipulated in the current contract;

  (6) The employment contract ends pursuant to item (4) or (5) of Article 44 hereof;

  (7) Other circumstances specified in laws or administrative statutes.

  Article 47

  A Employee shall be paid severance pay based on the number of years worked with the Employer at the rate of one month’s wage for each full year worked. Any period of not less than six months but less than one year shall be counted as one year. The severance pay payable to a Employee for any period of less than six months shall be one-half of his monthly wages.

  If the monthly wage of a Employee is greater than three times the average monthly wage of employees in the Employer’s area as published by the People’s Government at the level of municipality directly under the central government or municipality divided into districts of the area1 where the Employer is located, the rate for the severance pay paid to him shall be three times the average monthly wage of employees and shall be for not more than 12 years of work.

  For the purposes of this Article, the term “monthly wage” means the Employee’s average monthly wage for the 12 months prior to the termination or ending of his employment contract.

  Article 48

  If an Employer terminates or ends an employment contract in violation of this

  Law and the Employee demands continued performance of such contract, the Employer shall continue performing the same. If the Employee does not demand continued performance of the employment contract or if continued performance of the employment contract has become impossible, the Employer shall pay damages pursuant to Article 87 hereof.

  Article 49

  The state will take measures to establish a comprehensive system that enables Employees’ social insurance accounts to be transferred from one region to another and to be continued in such other region.

  Article 50

  At the time of termination or ending of an employment contract, the Employer shall issue a proof of termination or ending of the employment contract and, within 15 days, carry out the procedures for the transfer of the Employee’s file and social insurance account.

  The Employee shall carry out the procedures for the handover of his work as agreed by the parties. If relevant provisions of this Law require the Employer to pay severance pay, it shall pay the same upon completion of the procedures for the handover of the work.

  The Employer shall keep terminated or ended employment contracts on file for not less than two years, for reference purposes.

CHAPTER 5 SPECIAL PROVISIONS


  SECTION 1 COLLECTIVE CONTRACT

  Article 51

  After bargaining on an equal basis, enterprise employees, as one party, and their Employer may conclude a collective contract on such matters as labor compensation, working hours, rest, leave, work safety and hygiene, insurance, benefits, etc. The draft of the collective contract shall be presented to the employee representative congress or all the employees for discussion and approval.

  A collective contract shall be concluded by the Trade union, on behalf of the enterprise’s employees, and the Employer. If the Employer does not yet have a Trade union, it shall

  1 Translator’s note: The phrase “of the area” does not appear in the Chinese text. It has been added by us in view of the context.

  Conclude the collective contract with a representative put forward by the Employees under the guidance of the Trade union at the next higher level.

  Article 52

  Enterprise employees, as one party, and their Employer may enter into specialized collective contracts addressing labor safety and hygiene, protection of the rights and interests of female employees, the wage adjustment mechanism, etc.

  Article 53

  Industry-wide or area-wide collective contracts may be concluded between the Trade union on the one hand and representatives on the side of the enterprises on the other hand in industries such as construction, mining, catering services, etc. within areas below the county level.

  Article 54

  After a collective contract has been concluded, it shall be submitted to the labor administration authority. The collective contract shall become effective upon the lapse of 15 days from the date of receipt thereof by the labor administration authority, unless the said authority raises any objections to the contract.

  A collective contract that has been concluded in accordance with the law is binding on the Employer and the Employees. An industry-wide or area-wide collective contract is binding on Employers and Employees in the industry or in the area in the locality concerned.

  Article 55

  The rates for labor compensation, standards for working conditions, etc. stipulated in a collective contract may not be lower than the minimum rates and standards prescribed by the local People’s Government. The rates for labor compensation, standards for working conditions, etc. stipulated in the employment contract between an Employer and a Employee may not be lower than those stipulated in the collective contract.

  Article 56

  If an Employer’s breach of the collective contract infringes upon the labor rights and interests of the employees, the Trade union may, in accordance with the law, demand that the Employer assume liability. If a dispute arising from the performance of the collective contract is not resolved following consultations, the Trade union may apply for arbitration and institute an action according to law.

  SECTION 2  Placement

  Article 57

  Staffing firms shall be established in accordance with the relevant provisions

  of the Company Law and have registered capital of not less than RMB¥500,000.

  Article 58

  Staffing firms are Employers as mentioned in this Law and shall perform an Employer’s obligations toward its Employees. The employment contract between a staffing firm and a Employee to be placed shall, in addition to the matters specified in Article 17 hereof, specify matters such as the unit with which the Employee will be placed, the term of his placement, his position, etc.

  The employment contracts between staffing firms and the Employees to be placed shall be fixed term employment contracts with a term of not less than two years. Staffing firms shall pay labor compensation on a monthly basis. During periods when there is no work for Employees to be placed, the staffing firm shall pay such Employees compensation on a monthly basis at the minimum wage rate prescribed by the People’s Government of the place where the staffing firm is located.

  Article 59

  When placing Employees, staffing firms shall enter into staffing agreements with the units that accept the Employees under the placement arrangements (“Accepting Units”). The staffing agreements shall stipulate the job positions in which Employees are placed, the number of persons placed, the term of placement, the amounts and methods of payments of labor compensation and social insurance premiums, and the liability for breach of the agreement.

  An Accepting Unit shall decide with the staffing firm on the term of placement based on the actual requirements of the job position, and it may not conclude several short-term placement agreements to cover a continuous term of labor use.

  Article 60

  Staffing firms shall inform the Employees placed of the content of the placement agreements.

  Staffing firms may not pocket part of the labor compensation that the Accepting Units pay to the Employees in accordance with the placement agreement.

  Staffing firms and the Accepting Units may not charge fees from the Employees placed.

  Article 61

  If a staffing firm places a Employee with an Accepting Unit in another region, the Employee’s labor compensation and working conditions shall be in line with the rates and standards of the place where the Accepting Unit is located.

  Article 62

  Accepting Units shall perform the following obligations:

  (1) Implement state labor standards and provide the corresponding working conditions and labor protection;

  (2) communicate the job requirements and labor compensation of the Employees placed;

  (3) Pay overtime pay and performance bonuses and provide benefits appropriate for the job positions;

  (4) Provide the placed Employees who are on the job with the training necessary for their job positions; and

  (5) In case of continuous placement, implement a normal wage adjustment system.

  Accepting Units may not in turn place the Employees with other Employers.

  Article 63

  Placed Employees shall have the right to receive the same pay as that received by Employees of the Accepting Unit for the same work. If an Accepting Unit has no Employee in the same position, the labor compensation shall be determined with reference to the labor compensation paid in the place where the Accepting Unit is located to Employees in the same or a similar position.

  Article 64

  Placed Employees have the right to lawfully join the Trade union of their staffing firm or the Accepting Unit or to organize such unions, so as to protect their own lawful rights and interests.

  Article 65

  Placed Employees may terminate their employment contracts with their staffing firms pursuant to Article 36 or 38 hereof.

  If any of the circumstances provided for in Article 39 and items (1) and (2) of Article 40 hereof applies to a placed Employee, his Accepting Unit may return him to the staffing firm, which may terminate its employment contract with him in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Law.

  Article 66

  The placement of Employees shall generally be practiced for temporary, auxiliary or substitute job positions.

  Article 67

  Employers may not establish staffing firms to place Employees with themselves or their subordinate units.

  Section 3 Part-Time Labor

  Article 68

  The term “part-time labor” means a form of labor for which the compensation is chiefly calculated by the hour and where the Employee generally averages not more than 4 hours of work per day and not more than an aggregate 24 hours of work per week for the same Employer.

  Article 69

  The two parties to part-time labor may conclude an oral agreement.

  A Employee who engages in part-time labor may conclude an employment contract with one or more Employers, but a subsequently concluded employment contract may not prejudice the performance of a previously concluded employment contract.

  Article 70

  The two parties to part-time labor may not stipulate a probation period.

  Article 71

  Either of the two parties to part-time labor may terminate the use of the labor by notice to the other party at any time. No severance pay shall be payable by the Employer to the Employee upon termination of the use of the labor.

  Article 72

  The hourly compensation rate for part-time labor may not be lower than the minimum hourly wage rate prescribed by the People’s Government of the place where the Employer is located.

  The labor compensation settlement and payment cycle for part-time labor may not exceed 15 days.

CHAPTER 6 MONITORING INSPECTIONS


  Article 73

  The State Council’s labor administration authority shall be responsible for overseeing the implementation of the employment contract system nationwide. The labor administration authorities of local People’s Governments at the county level and above shall be responsible for overseeing the implementation of the employment contract system in their respective jurisdictions.

  In the course of overseeing the implementation of the employment contract system, the labor administration authorities of People’s Governments at the county level and above shall consider the opinions of the Trade unions, the representatives on the side of the enterprises and the authorities in charge of the industries concerned.

  Article 74

  The labor administration authorities of local People’s Governments at the county level and above shall conduct monitoring inspections of the implementation of the following aspects of the employment contract system, in accordance with the law:

  (1) Employers’ formulation of rules and regulations that have a direct bearing on the immediate interests of Employees, and the implementation thereof;

  (2) The conclusion and termination of employment contracts by Employers and Employees;

  (3) Compliance with relevant regulations on placement by staffing firms and Accepting Units;

  (4) Employers’ compliance with state regulations on Employees’ working hours, rest and leave;

  (5) Employers’ payment of labor compensation as specified in the employment contracts and compliance with minimum wage rates;

  (6) Employers’ enrollment in the various types of social insurance and payment of social insurance premiums; and

  (7) Other labor matters requiring monitoring inspections, as specified in laws and administrative statutes.

  Article 75

  When the labor administration authority of a local People’s Government at the county level or above conducts a monitoring inspection, it has the authority to review materials relating to the employment contracts and collective contracts and conduct an on the-spot inspection of the work premises. Both the Employer and the Employees shall truthfully provide relevant information and materials.

  When working personnel of a labor administration authority conduct a monitoring inspection, they shall show their IDs, exercise their functions and powers according to law and enforce the law in a well-disciplined manner.

  Article 76

  Such competent authorities as construction authorities, health authorities, production safety regulators, etc. of People’s Governments at the county level and above shall, to the extent of their respective purviews, oversee the implementation of the employment contract system by Employers.

  Article 77

  A Employee whose lawful rights and interests have been infringed upon shall have the right to request that the relevant authority deal with the infringement according to law, or to apply for arbitration and institute an action according to law.

  Article 78

  Trade unions shall safeguard the lawful rights and interests of Employees in accordance with the law and monitor the performance of the employment contracts and collective contracts by Employers. If an Employer violates labor laws or statutes or breaches an employment contract or collective contract, the Trade union has the right to voice its opinion or require that the matter be rectified. If a Employee applies for arbitration or institutes an action, the Trade union shall provide support and assistance in accordance with the law.

  Article 79

  All organizations and individuals are entitled to report violations of this Law.

  The labor administration authorities of People’s Governments at the county level and above shall timely check and handle the violations reported and reward those persons whose reports are valuable.

CHAPTER 7 LEGAL LIABILITY


  Article 80

  If an Employer’s rule or regulation with a direct bearing on the immediate interests of Employees violates laws or administrative statutes, the labor administration authority shall order rectification and give a warning. If the said rule or regulation caused a Employee to suffer harm, the Employer will be liable for damages.

  Article 81

  If the text of an employment contract provided by an Employer lacks any of the mandatory clauses which this Law requires to be included in such contracts or if an Employer fails to deliver the text of the employment contract to the Employee, the labor administration authority shall order rectification; if the Employee suffered harm as a result thereof, the Employer will be liable for damages.

  Article 82

  If an Employer concludes a written employment contract with a Employee more than one month but less than one year after the date on which it started using him, it shall each month pay to the Employee twice his wage.

  If an Employer fails, in violation of this Law, to conclude an open-ended employment contract with a Employee, it shall each month pay to the Employee twice his wage, starting from the date on which an open-ended employment contract should have been concluded.

  Article 83

  If the probation period stipulated by an Employer with a Employee violates this Law, the labor administration authority shall order rectification. If the illegally stipulated probation has been performed, the Employer shall pay compensation to the Employee according to the time worked on probation beyond the statutory probation period, at the rate of the Employee’s monthly wage following the completion of his probation.

  Article 84

  If an Employer violates this Law by retaining a Employee’s resident ID card or other papers, the labor administration authority shall order the same returned to the Employee within a specified period of time and impose a penalty in accordance with the provisions of relevant laws.

  If an Employer violates this Law by collection property from Employees as security or under some other guise, the labor administration authority shall order the same returned to the Employees within a specified period of time and impose a fine on the Employer of not less than RMB¥500 and not more than RMB¥2,000 for each person; If the Employees suffered harm as a result of the said conduct on the part of the Employer, the Employer will be liable for damages. If an Employer retains a Employee’s file or other Article after the Employee has terminated or ended his employment contract in accordance with the law, a penalty shall be imposed in accordance with the preceding paragraph.

  Article 85

  If an Employer:

  (1) Fails to pay a Employee his labor compensation in full and on time as stipulated in his employment contract or prescribed by the state;

  (2) Pays labor compensation below the local minimum wage rate;

  (3) Arranges overtime without paying overtime pay; or

  (4) Terminates or ends an employment contract without paying the Employee severance pay pursuant to this Law; then the labor administration authority shall order it to pay the labor compensation, overtime pay or severance pay within a specified period of time; if the labor compensation is lower than the local minimum wage rate, the Employer shall pay the shortfall. If payment is not made within the time limit, the Employer shall be ordered to additionally pay damages to the Employee at a rate of not less than 50 percent and not more than 100 percent of the amount payable.

  Article 86

  If an employment contract is confirmed as being invalid in accordance with Article 26 hereof and the other party suffers harm as a result thereof, the party at fault shall be liable for damages.

  Article 87

  If an Employer terminates or ends an employment contract in violation of this Law, it shall pay damages to the Employee at twice the rate of the severance pay provided for in Article 47 hereof.

  Article 88

  If an Employer:

  (1) uses violence, threats or unlawful restriction of personal freedom to compel a Employee to work;

  (2) Instructs in violation of rules and regulations, or peremptorily orders, a Employee to perform dangerous operations which threaten his personal safety;

  (3) Insults, corporally punishes, beats, illegally searches or detains a Employee; or

  (4) provides odious working conditions or a severely polluted environment, resulting in serious harm to the physical or mental health of Employees; it shall be subjected to administrative punishment; if the said conduct constitutes a criminal offense, criminal liability shall be pursued according to law; if the Employee suffers harm as a result of the said conduct on the part of the Employer, the Employer will be liable for damages.

  Article 89

  If an Employer fails, in violation of this Law, to issue to a Employee a certificate evidencing the termination or ending of his employment contract, the labor administration authority shall order rectification. If the Employee suffers harm as a result of such failure, the Employer will be liable for damages.

  Article 90

  If a Employee terminates his employment contract in violation of this Law or breaches the confidentiality obligations or competition restrictions stipulated in his employment contract, and if such violation or breach causes his Employer to suffer loss, he will be liable for damages.

  Article 91

  If an Employer hires a Employee whose employment contract with another Employer has not yet been terminated or ended, causing the other Employer to suffer a loss, it shall be jointly and severally liable with the Employee for damages.

  Article 92

  If a staffing firm violates this Law, the labor administration authority and other relevant competent authorities shall order it to rectify the situation. If the circumstances are serious, it shall impose a fine of not less than RMB¥1,000 and not more than RMB¥5,000 for each person, and the administration for industry and commerce shall revoke the business license. If the Employee(s) placed suffer(s) harm, the staffing firm and the Accepting Unit shall be jointly and severally liable for damages.

  Article 93

  An Employer that carries on business without the legal qualifications therefore will be pursued according to law for its legal liability for its illegal and criminal acts. If its Employees have already performed labor, the Employer or its investor(s) shall pay them labor compensation, severance pays and damages in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Law. If the Employees suffer harm as a result thereof, the said unit shall be liable for damages.

  Article 94

  If an individual that contracts for the operation of a business hires Employees in violation of this Law and a Employee suffers harm as a result thereof, the organization that employed such contractor shall be jointly and severally liable with the contractor for damages.

  Article 95

  If a labor administration authority, another competent authority or a member of its working personnel neglects its/his duties, fails to perform its/his statutory duties or exercises its/his authority in violation of the law, thereby causing harm to a Employee or an

  Employer, liability for damages shall be borne and the leading official directly in charge and the other persons directly responsible shall be subjected to administrative penalties in accordance with the law; if a criminal offense is constituted, criminal liability shall be pursued in accordance with the law.

CHAPTER 8 SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS


  Article 96

  Where laws or administrative statutes contain, or the State Council has formulated, separate regulations concerning the conclusion, performance, amendment, termination or ending of employment contracts by and between institutions and those of their working personnel that are subject to the employment system, matters shall be handled in accordance with such regulations; in the absence of such regulations, matters shall be handled in accordance with this Law.

  Article 97

  Employment contracts concluded in accordance with the law before the implementation of this Law and continuing to exist on the implementation date of this Law shall continue to be performed. For the purposes of item (3) of the second paragraph of Article 14 hereof, the number of consecutive occasions on which a fixed-term employment contract is concluded shall be counted from the first renewal of such contract to occur after the implementation of this Law.

  If an employment relationship was established prior to the implementation of this Law without the conclusion of a written employment contract, such contract shall be concluded within one month from the implementation date of this Law.

  If an employment contract existing on the implementation date of this Law is terminated or ends after the implementation of this Law and, pursuant to Article 46 hereof, severance pay is payable, the number of years for which severance pay is payable shall be counted from the implementation date of this Law. If, under relevant regulations in effect prior to the implementation of this Law, the Employee is entitled to severance pay from the Employer in respect of a period preceding the implementation of this Law, the matter shall be handled in accordance with the relevant regulations that were in effect at that time.

  Article 98

  This Law shall be implemented from January 1, 2008.
 
 

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