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阅读 5720 次 历史版本 1个 创建者:菱若蔻 (2011/3/22 9:11:55)  最新编辑:小狐狸 (2012/1/30 16:12:23)
《背影》
拼音:Bèiyǐng(Beiying)
目錄[ 隱藏 ]
  本文是作者追憶八年前的事。作者當時在北京大學哲學系念書,得知祖母去世,從北京趕到徐州與父親一道回颺州奔喪。 喪事完畢,父親到南京找工作,作者回北京念書,父子在浦口惜别。

原文

 
  我與父親不相見已有二年馀了,我最不能忘記的是他的背影。
背影
背影

  那年冬天,祖母死了,父親的差使也交卸了,正是禍不單行的日子,我從北京到徐州,打算跟着父親奔喪回家。到徐州見着父親,看見滿院狼籍的東西,又想起祖母,不禁簌簌地流下眼淚。

  父親說,“事已如此,不必難過,好在天無絕人之路!”

  回家變賣典質,父親還了虧空;又借錢辦了喪事。這些日子,家中光景很是慘淡,一半爲了喪事,一半爲了父親賦閑。喪事完畢,父親要到南京謀事,我也要回到北京念書,我們便同行。

  到南京時,有朋友約去游逛,勾留了一日;第二日上午便須渡江到浦口,下午上車北去。父親因爲事忙,本已說定不送我,叫旅館里一個熟識的茶房陪我同去。他再三囑咐茶房,甚是仔細。但他終於不放心,怕茶房不妥貼;頗躊躇了一會。其實我那年已二十歲,北京已來往過兩三次,是沒有甚麽要緊的了。他躊躇了一會,終於決定還是自己送我去。我兩三回勸他不必去;他隻說,“不要緊,他們去不好!”

  我們過了江,進了車站。我買票,他忙着照看行李。行李太多了,得向腳夫行些小費,才可過去。他便又忙着和他們講價錢。我那時真是聰明過分,總覺他說話不大漂亮,非自己插嘴不可。但他終於講定了價錢;就送我上車。他給我揀定了靠車門的一張椅子;我將他給我做的紫毛大衣鋪好坐位。他囑我路上小心,夜里要警醒些,不要受涼。又囑托茶房好好照應我。我心里暗笑他的迂;他們隻認得錢,托他們直是白托!而且我這樣大年紀的人,難道還不能料理自己麽?唉,我現在想想,那時真是太聰明了。

  我說道,“爸爸,你走吧。”他往車外看了看,說,“我買幾個桔子去。你就在此地,不要走動。”我看那邊月台的柵欄外有幾個賣東西的等着顧客。走到那邊月台,須穿過鐵道,須跳下去又爬上去。父親是一個胖子,走過去自然要費事些。我本來要去的,他不肯,隻好讓他去。我看見他戴着黑布小帽,穿着黑布大馬褂,深青布棉袍,蹣跚地走到鐵道邊,慢慢探身下去,尚不大難。可是他穿過鐵道,要爬上那邊月台,就不容易了。他用兩手攀着上面,兩腳再向上縮;他肥胖的身子向左微傾,顯出努力的樣子。這時我看見他的背影,我的淚很快地流下來了。我趕緊拭乾了淚,怕他看見,也怕别人看見。我再向外看時,他已抱了朱紅的桔子往回走了。過鐵道時,他先將桔子散放在地上,自己慢慢爬下,再抱起桔子走。到這邊時,我趕緊去攙他。他和我走到車上,將桔子一股腦兒放在我的皮大衣上。於是撲撲衣上的泥土,心里很輕松似的,過一會說,“我走了,到那邊來信!”我望着他走出去。他走了幾步,回過頭看見我,說,“進去吧,里邊沒人。”等他的背影混入來來往往的人里,再找不着了,我便進來坐下,我的眼淚又來了。

  近幾年來,父親和我都是東奔西走,家中光景是一日不如一日。他少年出外謀生,獨立支持,做了許多大事。哪知老境卻如此頹唐!他觸目傷懷,自然情不能自已。情鬱於中,自然要發之於外;家庭瑣屑便往往觸他之怒。他待我漸漸不同往日。但最近兩年不見,他終於忘卻我的不好,隻是惦記着我,惦記着我的兒子。我北來後,他寫了一封信給我,信中說道,“我身體平安,惟膀子疼痛利害,擧箸提筆,諸多不便,大約大去之期不遠矣。”我讀到此處,在晶瑩的淚光中,又看見那肥胖的,青布棉袍,黑布馬褂的北影。唉!我不知何時再能與他相見!

                                                                                                                                                        1925年10月在北京

                                                                                                           (原載1925年11月22日《文學周報》第200期)
 

英語譯文

 
  It is more than two years since I saw my father last time, and what I can never forget is the sight of his back. In the winter of more than two years ago, Grandma died and father lost his job. Misfortunes never come singly. I left Beijing for xvzhou to join father in hastening home to attend grandma's funeral. When I met father in Xvzhou, the sight of the disorderly mess in his courtyard and the thought of grandma started tears trickling down my cheeks. Father said, “that things have come to such a pass, now not be too sad .Fortunately, Heaven always leaves one a way out."

  After arriving home in Yang Zhou, father sold out all the fortunate in order to pay off the debts. He also borrowed money to meet the funeral expenses. Between grandma's funeral and father's unemployment, our family was then in reduced circumstances. After the funeral was over, father was to go to Nanjing to look for a job and I was to return to Beijing to study, so we started out together.

  I spent the first day in Nanjing strolling about with some friends at their invitation, and was ferrying across the Yangtze River to Pukou the same day. Father said he was too busy to go and see me off at the railway station, but would ask a hotel waiter that he knew to accompany me there instead. He urged the waiter again and again to take good care of me, but still did not quite trust him. He hesitated for quite a while about what to do. As a matter of fact, nothing would matter at all because I was then times. After some wavering, he finally decided that he himself would accompany me to the station. I repeatedly tried to talk him out of it, but he only said,” never mind! It won't be comfortable for them to go there!"

  We entered the railway station after crossing the River. While I was at the booking office buying a ticket, father saw to my luggage. There was quite a bit of luggage and he had to bargain with the porter over the fee. I was then such a smart-aleck that I frowned upon the way father was haggling and on the verge of chipping in a few words when the bargain was finally clinched. Getting on the train with me, he picked me a seat close to the carriage door. I put on the brownish fur-lined overcoat he had tailor-made for me. He told me to be watchful on the way and be careful not to catch cold at night. He also asked the train attendants to take good care of me. I sniggered at father for being so impractical; for it was utterly useless to entrust me to those attendants, who cared for nothing but money. Besides, it was certainly no problem for a person of my age to look after himself. Oh, when I come to think of it, I can see how smarty I was in those days!

  I said,"dad, you might leave now.” But he looked out of the window and said,” I’m going to buy you some tangerines. You just stay here. Don't move around.” I caught sight of several vendors waiting for customers outside the railings beyond a platform. But to reach that platform would require crossing the railway track and doing some climbing up and down. That would be a strenuous job for father, who was fat. I wanted to do all that myself, but he stopped me, so I could do nothing but let him go. I watched him hobble towards the railway track in his black skullcap, black cloth mandarin jacket and dark blue cotton-padded cloth ling gown. He had little trouble climbing down the railway track, but it was a lot more difficult for him to climb up that platform after crossing the railway track. His hands held onto the upper part of the platform, his legs huddled up and his corpulent body tipped slightly towards the left, obviously making an enormous exertion. While I was watching him from behind, tears gushed from my eyes. I quickly wiped them away lest he or others should catch me crying. The next moment when I looked out of the window again, father was already on the way back, holding bright red tangerines in both hands. In crossing the railway track, he first put the tangerines on the ground, climbed down slowly and then picked them up again. When he came near the train, I hurried out to help him by the hand. After boarding the train with me, he laid all the tangerines on my overcoat, and patting the dirt off his clothes, he looked somewhat relieved and said after a while,” I must be going now. Don’t forget to write me from Beijing!” I gazed after his back retreating out of the carriage. After a few steps, he looked back at me and said, "Go back to your seat. Don’t leave your things alone." I, however, did not go back to my seat until his figure was lost among crowds of people hurrying to and fro and no longer visible. My eyes were again wet with tears.

  In recent years, I have been living an unsettled life, so did my father, and the circumstances of our family going from bad to worse. Father left home to make a life when young and did achieve quite a few things all on his own. To think that he should now be so downcast in old age ~the discouraging state of affairs filled him with an uncontrollable feeling of deep sorrow, and his pent-up emotion had to find a vent. That is why even more domestic trivialities would often make him angry, and meanwhile he became less and less nice with me. However, the separation of the last two years has made him more forgiving towards me. He keeps thinking about me and my son. After I arrived in Beijing, he wrote me a letter, in which he says, “I’m all right except for a severe pain in my arm. I even have trouble using chopsticks or writing brushes. Perhaps it won't be long now before I depart this life." Through the glistening tears which these words had brought to my eyes I again saw the back of father's corpulent form in the dark blue cotton-padded cloth long gown and the black cloth mandarin jacket. Oh, I'm not sure when I could see him again!

作者簡介


  朱自清(1898.11.22—1948.8.12)原名自華,號秋實,後改名自清,字佩弦。原籍浙江 紹興,生於江蘇東海,後隨祖父、父親定居颺州。幼年在私塾讀書,受中國傳統文化的熏陶。1912年入高等小學,1916年中學畢業後考入北京大學預科。1919年2月寫的《睡罷,小小的人》是他的新詩處女作。他是五四愛國運動的參加者,受五四浪潮的影響走上文學道路。

  1920年北京大學哲學系畢業後,在江蘇、浙江一帶教中學,積極參加新文學運動。1922年和俞平伯等人創辦《詩》月刊,是新詩誕生時期最早的詩刊。他是早期文學研究會會員。1923年發表的長詩《毁滅》,這時還寫過《漿聲燈影里的秦淮河》等優美散文。

  1925年8月到清華大學任教,開始研究中國古典文學;創作則以散文爲主。1927年寫的《背影》、《荷塘月色》都是燴炙人口的名篇。1931年留學美國,漫游歐洲,回國後寫成《歐游雜記》。 1932年9月任清華大學中文系主任。1937年抗日戰爭爆發,隨校南遷至昆明,任西南聯大教授,講授《宋詩》、《文辭研究》等課程。這一時期曾寫過散文《語義影》。1946年由昆明返回北京,任清華大學中文系主任。北京解放前夕,患胃病辭世。

寫作背景


  本文寫於1925年10月,另說爲 1927年(見季鎮淮的《朱自清先生年譜》)。作者談寫作動機時曾說:“我寫《背影》就因爲文中所引的父親的來信里那句話。當時讀了父親的信,真的淚如泉湧,我父親待我的許多好處,特别是《背影》里所叙的那一回。想起來跟在眼前一般無二,我這篇文隻是寫實。”(1947年7月1日答《文藝知識》編者問)惟其“寫實”,才體現了這篇文章的價值。

  文章寫的是1917年作者在北大讀書時經歷的事,是在25年寫的。這一時期中國社會的狀況是:軍閥割據,帝國主義勢力明爭暗鬥,知識分子朝不保夕,廣大勞動人民處在水深火熱之中。作者當時雖未站到革命立場,投入反帝反封的鬥爭中,但做爲一名正直、善良、敦厚的知識分子,必然要感到社會的壓抑,產生一種落寞淒涼的情緒。不是嗎,作者的家庭,因着社會的黑暗而日趨窘迫,“光景很是慘淡”“一日不如一日”。作者的父親,先是“賦閑”,後爲了找差事而“東奔西走”,乃至老境“頹唐”。這些都從一個側面反映了當時知識分子奔波勞碌,前途渺茫,謀事艱難,境遇淒慘的現實。在他們心頭籠罩一層不散的愁雲,如同文章所表現的灰暗的基調。在這一背景上,作者寫出的真摯、深沉,感人至深的父子之愛,不僅是符合我們民族倫理道德的一種傳統的純真而高尚的感情,而且父子互相體貼,特别是父親在融匯了辛酸與悲涼情緒的父子之愛中,含有在厄運面前的掙紮和對人情淡薄的舊世道的抗爭。雖然這隻是怨而不怒式的反抗,但也會引起人們的同情、歎惋乃至強烈的共鳴。

寫作年代


  《背影》一文,是朱自清的代表作,也是中國現代散文史上的名篇。文末注明“十月在北京”,哪一年的十月呢?在寫作年代上,出過小小的差誤。目前流行的說法是一九二五年和一九二七年兩種,而年代的差錯,對於分析、理解這篇散文,關係卻不小。

  實際上,早已被人們查清楚,《背影》發表在《文學周報》第200期上,刊物是一九二五年十一月二十二日出版的,而朱自清是一九二五年八月來北京的,那麼,該文的寫作年代隻能是一九二五年了。《文學周報》並不難找,是文學研究會的刊物,而它的目錄,被幾種書刊所着錄,《背影》發表在該期的篇首。

  爲什麼有一九二七年之說出現,而且影響較廣呢?首先將《背影》着錄於一九二七年項下的,是季鎮淮先生的《朱自清先生年譜》,這份年譜不僅編着較早,而且具有權威性,它是代表《朱自情全集》編委會所撰,後來收在《朱自清文集》中的。它廣泛流傳於海内外,被學術界所寶重,所引用,那影響之大,是不待說的。但這《背影》的寫作年代,卻是錯的,這是當年季先生的一個小小失誤。

賞析


  清人葉燮在論文學創作時說,天地間萬物,都有理、事、情可言,“三者缺一不成物。……譬之一木一草。其能發生者,理也;其既發生,則事也;既發生之後,夭矯滋植,情狀萬千,鹹有自得之趣,則情也。”他認爲,作爲反映客觀生活的文學作品應該是情理交至的。朱自清先生的《背影》,便是這種情理交至的代表作。

  事中含情,是這篇叙事散文的最大特點。如文中寫南下奔喪、車上擇坐、穿道買橘、别後致書等,事中無不滲透着深厚的感情。尤其是穿道買橘:“我看見他戴着黑布小帽,穿着黑布大馬褂,深青布棉袍,走到鐵路邊,慢慢探下身去,尚不大難。可是當他穿過鐵道,要爬上那邊月台,就不容易了。他用兩手攀着上面,兩腳再向上縮;他肥胖的身子向左微傾,顯出努力的樣子。這時我看見他的背影,我的眼淚很快就流下來了。”這段叙述,無須深究,這情已感人肺腑了。這是因爲這事的本身便飽含着父親對兒子的關心、體貼的忘我之情,這是因爲這事本身就是緣情而生的。

  事發於情而含情,情生於理則寓理,這是一個常識性的問題。我們說父愛子、子念父,這是人之常情,這“人之常情”之“情”便是一種“理”,然而,在分析那些特定環境中所出現的事,由這種特殊的事所抒發的情時,我們便發現其中這種“理”顯得尤爲突出、尤爲重要。如上所擧“穿道買橘”一事,其情的確催人淚下,令人鼻酸。但我們的思想還不能停留在這種感情的層面上,而應該想一想:父親憐愛兒子、兒子眷念父親,原因何在呢?這里,我們就得從這“事”與“情”中再找出理來:當時,“祖母死了,父親的差事也交卸了,正是禍不單行的日子”、“這些日子,家中光景很是慘淡,一半爲了(“爲了”這里作“因爲”解,下同──筆者注)喪事,一半爲了父親賦閑”。這一背景在文中出現過兩次,足見其重要。祖母的去世,父親的失業,這在父親心靈上投上了一層悲涼孤淒的陰影,在這光景慘淡的日子里,兒子便成了他老境中的唯一依靠和感情上的唯一寄托。而爲了謀生,又不得不離開這唯一的依靠和唯一的寄托時,這種依戀、憐愛之情便油然而生,這便是情生之理,事發之由。這時父親憐愛兒子的“情”便通過一系列的“事”反映出來,隻要能做到的,他將不分巨細地去做,再累,他也覺得“心里很輕松似的”。這件件滲透父愛的事,正好反映出此時的父親因母死業失、孤獨無依而需慰藉的心理。同樣,作者眷念父親之情,寫作《背影》之事,也是源於父親“隻是惦記我,惦記我的兒子”、“大約大去之期不遠矣”之理。不知這一理,是難以領會作者寫作《背影》時眷念之情的深切的。

  我們在欣賞叙事散文時,應留心作者的所叙之事,應留心事中的所抒之情,但更應留心作者在所叙之事、所抒之情中的所由之理。這是因爲:事爲枝幹,情爲花葉,而理爲根本。

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