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阅读 12991 次 历史版本 1个 创建者:旭日东升 (2011/1/27 11:31:56)  最新编辑:旭日东升 (2011/1/27 13:20:44)
金田起義
拼音:jīn tián qǐ yì
  
金田起義
  金田起義
  金田起義地址位於廣西壯族自治區桂平縣城北24公里處的金田村。洪秀全發展和鞏固了拜上帝會,利用宗教形式進行各種形式的反帝反封建鬥爭。1851年1月11日(道光三十年十二月初十),是洪秀全三十八歲誕辰,拜上帝會會眾齊集金田村。洪秀全宣布擧行武裝起義,建號太平天國,規模宏大的太平天國農民革命運動從此開始了。起義軍在太平天國初期重要的領導人韋昌輝家設立拜上帝會機關,在韋家開鑪打鐵,祕密制造武器。當時的起義指揮部設在金田村西的犀牛嶺營盤,營盤前設有練兵場,北設有起義前收藏武器的犀牛潭。太平軍的作戰指揮所設在金田村南4公里的新圩三界廟,洪秀全在這里指揮了新圩突圍戰。廟内現陳列有起義的歷史文物資料。
 

主要領導人簡介

洪秀全 

  
洪秀全
洪秀全
  洪秀全(1814—1864),廣東花縣人,農民家庭出身,他發展和鞏固了拜上帝會,利用宗教形式進行各種形式的反帝反封建鬥爭。1851年1月11日(道光三十年十二月初十),是洪秀全三十八歲誕辰,拜上帝會會眾齊集金田村。洪秀全宣布擧行武裝起義,建號太平天國,規模宏大的太平天國農民革命運動從此開始了。道光三十年十二月初十(1851年1月11日)洪秀全發動金田起義,建國號太平天國,自稱天王。鹹豐三年定都南京,稱天京。頒布《天朝田畝制度》,又分兵西征、北伐(參見太平軍北伐、太平軍西征)。鹹豐六年,因掌握軍政實權的東王楊秀清“威權逼己”,遂密詔(一說無密詔)北王韋昌輝率軍返京誅楊。韋又擴大事態,濫殺無辜。洪秀全迫於眾怨,隻好殺韋,以翼王石達開主政。次年,石達開受猜忌負氣出走,太平天國瀕危。洪秀全重用陳玉成、李秀成諸後起良將,自兼軍師,又采取減賦和加強宗教宣傳等措施,度過難關。同治二年(1863)冬,天京爲清軍圍困,糧盡援絕。洪秀全拒絕李秀成突圍的建議,固守天京。同治三年四月病卒。所著詩文及詔旨、文告等多收入《太平天國》(中國近代史資料叢刊之一)及《太平天國史料》等書中。

秦日綱 

  秦日綱(約1821—1856),廣西桂平(一作貴縣)人。原名日昌。早年加入拜上帝會。1851年12月在永安(今蒙山)任天官正丞相。1853年10月封頂天侯,代石達開駐守安慶。次年5月封燕王,奉命督師救廬州(今合肥),並出師援救北伐軍,至舒城返回。後與湘軍激戰失利,退至安徽宿松、太湖一帶。1855年敗清湖廣總督楊霈所部清兵,攻克武昌、漢口、漢陽。次年1月,東援鎮江。破清軍江北大營,再克颺州。後與石達開合兵擊破江南大營,解天京(今南京)之圍。7月,因在丹陽受挫,革去王爵。後在楊韋事變中,與韋昌輝合謀殺楊秀清及楊部太平軍,於11月28日被處死,並革除封號。  

石達開 

  石達開(1831年-1863年),小名亞達,綽號石敢當,廣西貴縣(今貴港)客家人,太平天國名將,近代中國著名的軍事家、政治家、武學名家,初封“左軍主將翼王”,天京事變曾封爲“聖神電通軍主將翼王”,軍民尊爲“義王”(本人謙辭不受)。石達開是太平天國最富有傳奇色彩的人物之一,十六歲“被訪出山”,十九歲統帥千軍,二十歲封王,英勇就義時年僅三十二歲,有關他的民間傳說遍布他生前轉戰過的大半個中國,表現出他當年深得各地民眾愛戴。  
 

蕭朝貴

  蕭朝貴(約1820—1852),壯族。生於清嘉慶末年,武宣縣河馬鄉上吳關村人。金田起義的核心領導人之一,太平天國將領,被封爲西王。 清道光二十三年(1843),洪秀全創立拜上帝會,派馮雲山深入桂平一帶傳教,祕密組織革命力量。1845年加入拜上帝會,與好友楊秀清最早成爲拜上帝會的成員。他們四處到壯、漢、瑤等各族人民中去宣傳拜上帝會的教義和好處,積極動員各族眾參加拜上帝會。二十八年(1848),馮雲山被捕入獄囚於桂平縣城,會眾發生動搖。洪秀全返回廣東營救。此時,蕭朝貴與楊秀清假托天父、天兄托降,安定眾心,堅持鬥爭。

馮雲山 

  馮雲山(1822-1852),漢族,太平天國傑出領導人之一,漢族客家人,出生於廣東花縣禾落地村,距官祿布五里,是洪秀全的表親和同學,關係極爲密切。他自幼誦讀經史,博覽群書,因屢試不第,在村塾中執教。1843年當洪秀全勸人拜上帝時,馮雲山是最早信從者之一。
  

金田起義背景

  
  金田起義的前夜,正是鴉片戰爭後十年。中國社會的主要矛盾,是農民階級與地主階級之間的矛盾。這種矛盾的尖銳化,可以追溯到一個世紀以前。原來清初經過明末農民大起義和入關後的戰爭,社會經濟在遭受嚴重破壞之後,到十七世紀末葉已經逐漸恢複起來。利用社會經濟生活比較安定,地主階級貪婪無厭地進行積累財富,於是出現了土地兼並的現象和商業與高利貸發達的現象。西方資本主義向東方進行侵略,並到處激起反抗的時代。封建的中國,在1840年鴉片戰爭中,開始被卷入西方資本主義的漩渦里面。正當西方資本主義侵略者剛剛侵入中國的時候,當時全國各地,到處孕育着革命的種子。英國的鴉片,腐蝕了清朝的統治,英國的大炮,也驚醒了中國廣大人民。中國社會正在起着空前未有的大變化,不論南方與北方,城市與鄉村,全部都動盪起來。起義的農民,已經在南中國的廣西點起革命的火把,烽火燒遍了全廣西。終於爆發金田起義。
  

金田起義簡介

  
  太平天國是我國近代史上一場偉大的農民革命。1851年1月11日,兩萬多名頭裹紅巾的男女農民、手工業工人,聚集在廣西省桂平縣金田村,在歡呼聲中莊嚴宣布擧行起義,起義軍建國號太平天國,公開宣告同滿清王朝處於武裝對立的地位。
  
  太平天國金田起義的領導者是洪秀全,他從1845年起用了5年時間,就在廣西、廣東建立了幾十個大小據點,發展到數萬人。
  
  1850年7月,洪秀全認爲起義形勢已經成熟,於是向各地會眾發布了向金田村集中的總動員令。
  
  1851年1月11日(舊曆十二月初十),是洪秀全的生日,金田起義因勢爆發。
起義舊址
  起義舊址
  
  洪秀全頒布了5條軍紀,要求太平軍嚴格遵守:(一)遵條命;(二)别男行女行;(三)秋毫莫犯;(四)公心和睦,各遵頭目約束;(五)同心合力,不得臨陣退縮。這5條軍紀雖然簡明,(TodayOnHistory.com)但對增進太平軍的團結和加強戰鬥力起了非常重要的作用,並因此取得廣大人民的擁護。金田起義是太平天國革命的開始,它揭開了近代中國人民革命運動的序幕。
  
  太平軍爲建立自由幸福的理想天國,轉戰幾千里,攻克了600多座城鎮,席卷了半個中國,創下了我國歷史上農民政權大旗14年不倒的最高紀錄。
  
  太平天國運動雖然終歸失敗,但它打擊了清王朝的統治,加速了封建制度的崩潰。它打擊了外國侵略者,使其迅速把中國變爲殖民地的企圖不能實現。太平天國運動影響深遠,它不僅鼓舞了以後中國人民的反封建鬥爭,(Todayonhistory.com)如孫中山就曾以洪秀全第二自命;而且對亞洲一些國家,如日本、(lsjt.net)朝鮮(東學黨)都有過思想影響。
  
  天安門廣場人民英雄紀念碑上刻着的“金田起義”的大型浮雕,供人們瞻仰的同時,也展示着它的歷史意義。
  

金田起義過程

  
  1851年的一天,大清國統治下的廣西,一個偏僻的小村鎮,一群頭纏粗布巾的人聚集在一起,曆數着清王朝的腐敗和他們“有田同耕、有飯同食、有衣同穿、有錢同使”理想。他們與眾不同的裝束,與帝王統治格格不入的理論,預示着一場驚天動地的風暴的到來。
  
  金田,廣西中部的一個小村子,在剛剛成爲太平天國運動的發源地後,清軍調集了湖南、貴州等幾省兵力向金田撲來。大兵壓境,剛剛放下手中農具而成爲太平軍的將士們將如何抵抗呢?
  
  爲了鼓舞剛剛揭竿而起的義軍士氣,自稱“上帝兒子”的洪秀全,在誓師大會上說:現在造反的時機到了,萬能的上帝在犀牛潭爲我們准備了造反的武器。半信半疑的信徒排幹了犀牛潭的水,果然在潭底里穫得刀、鎗、戟等數千件各種武器,一時間群情激昂,士氣高漲。其實武器是洪秀全等人事先打造好扔進水潭里的。
  
  犀牛潭里武器的打造人就是後來成爲太平天國北王的韋昌輝,他是土生土長的金田人,是村里比較富有的小財主。韋昌輝將全部家產獻出,並在家里設十二座打鐵鑪日夜打制武器。又將武器塗上桐油,密藏於犀牛潭中。起義初期,韋家就成了太平軍的大本營。
  
  起義後,太平軍東出江口。江口就是金田東邊,潯江北岸水路交通便捷的大湟江口,洪秀全將指揮部就設在這里。面對咄咄逼人的清軍,太平軍以潯江和周圍山地爲依托,兩次重創清軍,大大鼓舞了起義初期的太平軍將士。
  
  爲補充給養,太平軍又回撤金田,經紫荆山,過東鄉,轉戰武宣,象州,連敗清軍。在東鄉洪秀全被正式推擧爲天王,並建立了初期的軍事制度。
  
  經過幾個月的轉戰,太平軍面臨武器糧食短缺的困境,又一次回師紫荆山 。紫荆山位於金田的西北面,雄關四伏、隘口連環,它西連武宣、象州,北通金秀,東出平南,是潯洲、柳州、梧州三府的交通要沖。加之林密路險,曆來爲兵家必爭之地。太平天國的西王蕭朝貴等人均來自紫荆山,可以說紫荆山是太平軍在金田起義時的大後方。
  
  這里叫風門坳(澳),是進入紫荆山的必經之地。因風大和早晚風向時常變化而得名。傳說太平軍在此利用突變的大風大敗清軍。而在平靜的水面下,的確掩蓋着一處古戰場。太平軍和清軍爲爭奪風門坳數次激戰,隆隆炮聲,人喊馬嘶仿佛依然回盪在山穀里。
  
  在激戰風門坳後,太平軍成功突圍,離開了他們起義的地方-金田。但一個更加廣闊的天地正在等待他們,一場席卷半個中國,曆經十四年的波瀾壯闊的太平天國運動開始了。
 

金田起義成果

  

永安建制

 
  永安城爲州治所在,是一座繁華堅固的中型城市。攻克這座城市後,洪秀全一家於十月一日進駐原知州衙門。城中一些富豪人家被抄家,抄家所得被納入“聖庫”,以資軍用。但總的來說,太平軍的紀律是相當不錯的。在永安城里,太平天國建立起了自己的一整套制度,被歷史學家稱之爲“永安建制”。道光二十八年,江忠源在家鄉新寧開辦團練,鎮壓當地瑤民起義有功,遷升浙江秀水知縣。太平天國起事前,他恰好因父喪在籍,遂就地募兵數百人,稱爲“楚勇”,入廣西助剿太平軍,隸屬於烏蘭泰部。這是湖南地方團練升格爲正規部隊之始。
  

天朝田畝制度

  金田起義後太平軍主要領導人制定了《天朝田畝制度》,這是中國幾千年來農民起義的一個典範,具有劃時代意義。其基本内容:《天朝田畝制度》的基本内容,是根據“凡天下田,天下人同耕”的原則,把每畝土地按每年產量的多少,分爲上、中、下三級九等,然後好田壞田互相搭配,好壞各一半,按人口平均分配。凡16歲以上的男女每人得到一份同等數量的土地,15歲以下的減半。同時,還提出“豐荒相通”、以豐賑荒的調劑辦法。主要措施 :《天朝田畝制度》以解決農民土地問題爲中心,它涉及到經濟、政治、軍事、文教和社會改革等多方面的政策和措施。土地分爲九等,好壞平均搭配。然後以戶爲單位,不分男女按人口平均分配。16歲以上分全份,15歲以下分半份。
  

金田起義意義

 
  金田起義有重要的歷史意義,對於中國近代史的發展起了積極的促進作用,主要表現如下:
  ①金田起義是中國近代史上一次偉大的反封建反侵略的農民運動(性質),它是幾千年來中國農民戰爭的最高峰。  
  ②金田起義堅持14年,勢力達18省,嚴懲了中外反動勢力。
  ③金田起義擔任反封建反侵略雙重任務。反對封建主義,加速了清王朝和整個封建制度的衰落和崩潰;反侵略,打破了西方侵略者把中國迅速殖民地化的企圖。
  ④金田起義一些領導人開始向西方尋求真理,探索中國獨立、富強的途徑。
 
  金田起義的反封建精神,鼓舞着千百萬農民群眾,爲推翻封建的土地制度而鬥爭。太平軍所到之處,出現了沒收地主、官僚的財產,焚毁田契、債券,限制地主收租的鬥爭場面。不少地主唉聲歎氣說:豐收"於我無份";有些地區的地主全年地租"籽粒無收"。有的地區甚至把地主的土地分掉,太平天國政權發給"田憑"。除此之外,太平天國把一些廟宇祠堂占有的土地、公田和逃亡地主的土地沒收,分給沒有土地的農民耕種。都在一定程度上滿足了農民群眾的經濟政治要求。減輕了農民的負擔,發揮了他們的生產積極性。有的地區出現了"穀物豐收"、"農安物阜"的繁榮景象。

金田起義的文告

 
  這里連帶考察一下金田起義的有關文告。根據清方的奏報,金田的起義者在公開揭幟以後曾有“帖偽示誘脅”,即張貼起義文告以動員群眾的擧動。對此我們不禁要問:這篇(或這類)文告的具體内容會是什麼樣的?它(或它們)是否留存了下來?
 
起義文告
  起義文告

  早年研究太平天國史的專家簡又文先生在其《太平天國全史》一書中曾收錄有一篇起義檄文。據其介紹,“此檄文乃金田村黄石鳴錄存私藏”,並“承桂平友人曹無忌先生抄寄”。檄文的開頭部分如下:

  忖思未拜上帝以前,未嚐擾害良民。既拜上帝以後,何嚐劫掠城鄉?不過志甘泉石,自成世外之逍遙;性樂煙霞,别有無名之天地。於是托蹟潁水箕山,聊效巢由之洗耳;潛蹤西山北海,暫比夷齊之采薇。孔子雲:‘天下有道則見,無道則隱’。何乃爾等愚官劣宰,捉我同幫,押死公堂,輕如象蟻,誰不爲痛心哉?故不得不糾集英雄,結盟豪傑,以作複仇之擧。……[31]

  簡又文認爲“此篇文義與叙事,符合史實”。近年也有治太平天國史者加以引用。然而這篇所謂的起義檄文,視點很低,氣魄過小,根本不可能是太平天國的起義文告。它把拜上帝會的領導者描述成一幫遁世的隱者,因官府的逼迫而不得不擧兵造反,則未免滑稽可笑。通觀其全文,很像是某位對拜上帝會歷史一知半解的好事者所爲。

  真正的太平天國起義文告,就其重要性而言,是應該被收入太平天國自身的“旨准頒行詔書”之中而加以刻印傳世的。隻要我們弄清起義的真切含義是仗義起兵勤王,確認起義的領導人是楊秀清與蕭朝貴,那就不難發現:幸存至今的以楊、蕭兩人會銜的《奉天誅妖救世安民示》、《奉天討胡檄》以及《救一切天生天養中國人民諭》等三篇文告,應即屬於此類起義文告。這三篇文告不僅以《頒行詔書》爲題匯集一冊,多次刻印,而且直到癸好三年(1853)太平軍占領南京之初還曾張貼過。在現存《頒行詔書》的幾種不同版本中,一些字句的内容頗有異同,可見經過多次修改[32]。然而這些修改都屬於枝節的或技術性的,其總體内容、總的精神始終未變。這三篇文告,首篇講起義緣起,次篇論反滿革命,末篇諭全國人民,内容各有側重,但又組合成一個有機的整體。因此它們既可能是按時序先後分别發表,也可能是於起義後同時公布。由於現存《頒行詔書》的最早刻本遲至壬子二年(1852)才面世,我們對後兩篇文告最初公布的時間已無法加以准確判定。但至少列於首篇的《奉天誅妖救世安民示》應是揭幟起義之初即行公布的文告。

  這篇告示一開始就着力宣颺了天父上帝“無所不知,無所不在,無所不能”的權能,尤其是戊申歲(1848)天父、天兄先後降凡所顯出的“無數權能”,曉諭世人“好醒”,“亟早回頭,拜真神,丟邪神”;接着便敦促身爲團勇、壯丁的三合會黨,不要忘記洪門歃血、結義拜盟時的反清誓言;最後則是如下的一段文字:

  今各省有志者萬殊之眾,名儒學士不少,英雄豪傑亦多,惟願各各起義,大振旌旗,報不共戴天之仇,共立勤王之勳,本軍師有所厚望焉。……獨不思天既生真主以禦民,自必扶天王以開國,縱妖魔百萬,詭計千端,焉能同天打鬥乎!但不教而誅,問心何忍,坐視不救,仁者弗爲,故特剴切曉諭。爾等凡民亟早回頭,拜真神,丟邪神,複人類,脱妖類。庶幾常生有路,得享天福。倘仍執迷不悟,玉石俱焚,那時噬臍,悔之晚矣。切切特諭

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