网络百科新概念
提示
 正文中的蓝色文字是词条,点击蓝色文字可进入该词条页面;
 正文中的红色文字是尚待创建的词条,点击红色文字可进入创建词条页面;
 欢迎参与词条创建或编辑修改!人人为我,我为人人。共同建设中文百科在线,共创知识文明!
zwbkorg
关注微信,获取更多信息
阅读 5785 次 历史版本 1个 创建者:于归 (2010/9/21 15:35:45)  最新编辑:于归 (2010/9/21 15:41:51)
诗经·颂·商颂·长发
目录[ 隐藏 ]
诗经·颂·商颂·长发

原文


  浚哲维商,长发其祥。洪水芒芒,禹敷下土方:外大国是疆,幅陨既长。有娀方将,帝立子生商。
 
  玄王桓拨,受小国是达,受大国是达。率履不越,遂视既发。相土烈烈。海外有截。
 
  帝命不违,至于汤齐。汤降不迟,圣敬日跻。昭假迟迟,上帝是祗,帝命式于九围。
 
  受小球大球,为下国缀旒,何天之休。不竞不絿,不刚不柔。敷政优优。百禄是遒。
 
  受小共大共,为下国骏厖。何天之龙,敷奏其勇。不震不动,不戁不竦,百禄是总。
 
  武王载旆,有虔秉钺。如火烈烈,则莫我敢曷。苞有三蘖,莫遂莫达。九有有截,韦顾既伐,昆吾夏桀。
 
  昔在中叶,有震且业。允也天子,降予卿士。实维阿衡,实左右商王。

英文翻译

 
    Profoundly wise were Shang,
    And long had there appeared the omens [of their dignity ].
    When the waters of the deluge spread vast abroad,
    Yu arranged and divided the regions of the land,
    And assigned to the exterior great States their boundaries,
    With their borders extending all over .
    Then the State of Song began to be great,
    And God raised up the son [of its daughter], and founded Shang.

    The dark king exercised an effective sway.
    Charged with a small State, he commanded success;
    Charged with a large State, he commanded success.
    He followed his rules of conduct without error;
    Wherever he inspected , they responded [to his instructions].
    [Then came] Xiang-tu, all-ardent,
    And all [within] the seas, beyond , acknowledged his restraints.

    The favour of God did not leave [Shang],
    And in Tang was found the subject for its display.
    Tang was not born too late,
    And his wisdom and virtue daily advanced.
    Brilliant was the influence of his character [on Heaven] for long,
    And God appointed him to be model to the nine regions.

    He received the rank-tokens [of the States], small and large,
    Which depended on him, like the pendants of a banner; –
    So did he receive the blessing of Heaven.
    He was neither violent nor remiss,
    Neither hard nor soft.
    Gently he spread his instructions abroad,
    And all dignities and riches were concentrated iin him.

    He received the tribute [of the States], large and small,
    And he supported them as a strong steed [does its burden]; –
    So did he receive the favour of Heaven.
    He displayed everywhere his valour,
    Unshaken, unmoved,
    Unterrified, unscared: –
    All dignities were united in him.

    The martial king displayed his banner,
    And with reverence grasped his axe.
    It was like a blazing fire,
    Which no one can repress.
    The root, with its three shoots,
    Could make no progress, no growth.
    The nine regions were effectually secured by him.
    Having smitten Wei and Gu,
    He dealt with Kun-wu, and with Jie of Xia.

    Formerly in the middle of the period [before Tang],
    There was a time of shaking and peril,
    But truly did Heaven deal with him as its son,
    And sent him down a minister,
    Namely A-heng,
    Who gave his assistance to the king of Shang.

注释


  1、浚(xùn):浚县,地名,在中国河南省。浚(俊jùn):《毛传》:“浚,深。”

  2、长发:《郑笺》:“长,犹久也。……久发见其祯祥矣。”

  3、方:《集传》:“方,四方也。”

  4、幅陨:《集传》:“幅,犹言边幅也。陨读作员,谓周也。”

  5、有娀(松sōng):《毛传》:“有娀,契(屑xiè)母也。将,大也。契生商也。”

  6、玄王:《毛传》:“玄王,契也。”《集疏》:“《韩》拨作发……桓拨二字平列。训桓为武,训发为明,言玄王有英明之姿。”

  7、是达:《郑笺》:“始尧封之商为小国,舜之末年乃益其土地为大国,皆能达其教令。”

  8、率履:《集传》:“率,循。履,礼。”《郑笺》:“遂,犹遍也。发,行也。……乃遍省视之,教令则尽行也。”

  9、相土:《毛传》:“相土,契孙也。烈烈,威也。”《郑笺》:“截,整齐也……四海之外率服,截尔整齐。”

  10、至于汤齐:《毛传》:“至汤与天心齐。”

  11、跻(基jī):《郑笺》:“降,下。”《毛传》:“不迟,言疾也。跻,升也。”

  12、祗(支zhī):《集传》:“迟迟,久也。祗,敬也。”

  13、九围:《集传》:“式,法也。九围,九州也。”

  14、缀旒(坠留zhuì liú):王引之《经义述闻》卷七:“球、共,皆法也。球读为捄,共读为拱。”《通释》:“缀旒并言,比喻汤为下国表则也。”

  15、何:《集传》:“何,荷。”

  16、絿(求qiú):《通释》:“絿对竞言,从《广雅》训求为是。争竞者多娇,求人者多谄,竞求二义,相对成文。”

  17、遒(囚qiú):《毛传》:“优优,和也。遒,聚也。”

  18、骏厖(芒máng):《通释》:“骏与恂,厖与蒙,古并声近通用。……为下国恂蒙,犹云为下国庇覆耳。”

  19、龙:《郑笺》:“龙,当作宠,宠,荣名之谓。”

  20、戁(赧nǎn):《毛传》:“戁,恐。竦,惧也。”

  21、旆:《毛传》:“武王,汤也。旆,旗也。”《通释》:“有虔,正形容强武之貌。”

  22、曷:《集传》:“害,曷通。”

  23、蘖(聂niè):《毛传》:“苞,本。蘖,余也。”《通释》:“遂与达,皆草木生长之称。莫遂莫达,以喻之国不能复兴。”

  24、韦顾:《郑笺》:“韦,豕韦,彭姓也。顾,昆吾皆己姓也。三国党于桀恶,汤先伐韦顾,克之,昆吾夏桀则同时诛也。”

  25、震:《郑笺》:“震,威也。”《尔雅o释诂》“业,大也。”

  26、阿衡:《毛传》:“阿衡,伊尹也。左右,助也。”

译文


  英明睿智大商始祖,永久兴发福泽祯祥。上古时候洪水茫茫,大禹平治天下四方。远方之国均为疆土,幅员广阔而又绵长。有娀氏女青春年少,上帝让她生子立商。

  玄王商契威武刚毅,接受小国认真治理,成为大国政令通利。遵循礼法没有失误,巡视民情处置适宜。先祖相土武功烈烈,四海之外顺服齐一。

  先祖听从上帝意旨,到成汤时最合天心。成汤降生适逢其时,明哲圣德日益增进。久久不息祷告神明,敬奉上帝一片至诚,上帝命他九州执政。

  接受宝玉小球大球。作为诸侯方国表率。承受上天所降福佑,既不争竞也不急求,既不太刚也不太柔。施政温和而且宽厚,千百福禄归王所有。

  接受大小拱璧珍宝,作为诸侯方国依靠。承受上天所赐恩宠,显示他的勇武英豪。既不震恐也不动摇,既不惧怯也不惊扰,千百福禄都会来到。

  武王兴师扬旗亲征,威风凛凛手持斧钺。进军如同熊熊火焰,没有敌人敢于阻截。一棵树干生三树杈,不能再长其他枝叶。天下九州归于一统,首先讨伐韦国顾国,再去灭掉昆吾夏桀

  还在以前国家中世,汤有威力又有业绩。他确实是上天之子,天降卿士作为辅弼。他也就是贤相伊尹,实为商王左膀右臂

鉴赏

 
  这亦是一首在祭祀仪式现场所诵唱的歌,与上首《玄鸟》是在同一祭祀仪式上颂唱。在歌唱了祖先留传下来的农业种植方法后,歌者接着歌颂了商民的祖先契。契是夏朝有娀国诸侯君主的女儿所生,是他发展了商民族。当时商国仍是夏朝的一个小诸侯国,但在契手中,商国逐渐发展壮大,直至成汤王继位后才推翻夏桀的统治,建立了一统天下的殷商王国。歌的第二段即回叙了契在治理商国期间的功绩,由于遵循礼教,商国得到治理,同时还接受了大大小小很多诸侯国家的国务,甚至发展到海外。第三段叙述成汤王继位后,也继承了契的平等思想,效法契建立了九州。第四、第五段则是描述成汤王效法天的道路,不竞争不急躁,不刚强不软弱,获得了百样福禄。第六、七段则是描述成汤王伐夏桀及昆吾、韦、顾等夏桀的帮凶,九治诸侯,终于取得完美胜利。最后一段则是歌颂了成汤王最得力的大臣伊尹,没有他的辅佐、影响,成汤王也很难成其大业。
 
 
 

    4
    0
    申明:1.中文百科在线的词条资料来自网友(一些人是某学科领域的专家)贡献,供您查阅参考。一些和您切身相关的具体问题(特别是健康、经济、法律相关问题),出于审慎起见,建议咨询专业人士以获得更有针对性的答案。2.中文百科的词条(含所附图片)系由网友上传,如果涉嫌侵权,请与客服联系,我们将及时给予删除。3.如需转载本页面内容,请注明来源于www.zwbk.org

    词条保护申请

  • * 如果用户不希望该词条被修改,可以申请词条保护
    * 管理员审核通过后,该词条会被设为不能修改

    注意:只有该词条的创建者才能申请词条保护

    本条目由以下用户参与贡献

  • 于归
联系我们意见反馈帮助中心免责声明
Copyright © 2010 zwbk.org 中文百科在线 All rights reserved.京ICP证090285号