网络百科新概念
提示
 正文中的蓝色文字是词条,点击蓝色文字可进入该词条页面;
 正文中的红色文字是尚待创建的词条,点击红色文字可进入创建词条页面;
 欢迎参与词条创建或编辑修改!人人为我,我为人人。共同建设中文百科在线,共创知识文明!
zwbkorg
关注微信,获取更多信息
阅读 4555 次 历史版本 1个 创建者:超可能 (2010/9/20 10:27:20)  最新编辑:超可能 (2010/9/20 10:38:47)
诗经·小雅·彤弓之什·采芑
目录[ 隐藏 ]
诗经·小雅·彤弓之什·采芑
 

原文


  薄言采芑,于彼新田,呈此菑亩。方叔莅止,其车三千。师干之试,方叔率止,乘其四骐,四骐翼翼。路车有奭,簟茀鱼服,钩膺鞗革。
 
  薄言采芑,于彼新田,于此中乡。方叔莅止,其车三千,旂旐央央。方叔率止,约軧错衡,八鸾玱玱.服其命服,朱芾斯皇,有玱葱珩。
 
  鴥彼飞隼,其飞戾天,亦集爰止。方叔莅止,其车三千,师干之试。方叔率止,钲人伐鼓,陈师鞠旅。显允方叔,伐鼓渊渊,振旅阗阗。
 
  蠢尔蛮荆,大邦为雠。方叔元老,克壮其犹。方叔率止,执讯获丑。戎车啴啴,啴啴焞焞,如霆如雷。显允方叔,征伐玁狁,蛮荆来威。

英文翻译

 
  They were gathering the white millet,
  In those new fields,
  And in these acres brought only one year under cultivation,
  When Fang Shu came to take the command.
  His chariots were three thousand,
  With a host of well-disciplined warriors.
  Fang Shu led them on,
  In his carriage drawn by four piebalds,
  Four piebalds orderly moving.
  Red shone his grand carriage,
  With its chequered bamboo screen, and seal-skin quivers,
  With the hooks for the trappings of the breast-bands, and the rein-ends.
 
  They were gathering the white millet,
  In those new fields,
  And all about these villages,
  When Fang Shu came to take the command.
  His chariots were three thousand;
  His banners, with their blazonry of dragons, and of serpents and tortoises, fluttered gaily.
  Fang Shu led them on,
  The naves of his wheels bound with leather, and his yoke ornamented.
  Tinkle-tinkle went the eight bells at the horses' bits.
  He wore the robes conferred [by the king];
  His red knee-covers were resplendent,
  And the gems of his girdle-pendant sounding.
 
  Rapid is the flight of the hawk,
  Soaring to the heavens,
  And again descending and settling in its place.
  Fang Shu came to take the command.
  His chariots were three thousand,
  With a host of well disciplined warriors.
  Fang Shu led them on.
  With his jinglers and drummers,
  He marshalled his hosts and addressed them.
  Intelligent and true is Fang Shu,
  Deep rolled the sound of his drums;
  With a lighter sound he led the troops back.
 
  Foolish were the savage tribes of King,
  Presuming to oppose our great region.
  Fang Shu is of great age,
  But full of vigour were his plans.
  He led his army on,
  Seized for the question, and made captives of a crowd [besides].
  Numerous were his war chariots,
  Numerous and in grand array,
  Like the clap or the roll of thunder their onset.
  Intelligent and true is Fang Shu.
  He had gone and smitten the Xian-yun,
  And the tribes of King came, awed by his majesty.

注释


  1、芑(起qǐ):苦菜。
 
  2、菑(兹zī)亩:开垦一年的土地。《毛传》:“田,一岁曰菑,二岁曰新田,三岁曰畬(奢shē)。”
 
  3、莅(立lì):《集传》:“莅,临也。”
 
  4、师干之试:《集传》:“师,众。干,扞(汉hàn)。试,肆习也。”
 
  5、骐:有青黑花纹的马。
 
  6、翼翼:《郑笺》:“翼翼,壮健貌。”
 
  7、奭(试shì):赭(者zhě)红色。
 
  8、簟茀(垫福diànfú):蔽车的竹席。《郑笺》:“茀之言,蔽也。车之蔽饰席文也。鱼服,矢服(箙)也。”
 
  9、膺:马带。《郑笺》:“钩膺,樊缨,马带也。”鞗(条tiáo)革:革制的缰绳,末端以金为饰。见《蓼萧》(Y-013)篇注。
 
  10、旂旐(兆zhào):《郑笺》:“交龙为旂,龟蛇为旐。”
 
  11、軧(齐qí):车毂两端有皮革装饰的部分。《毛传》:“约,束。軧,长毂之軧也。朱而约之。错衡,文衡也。”
 
  12、玱玱(枪qiāng):玉声。
 
  13、命服:《郑笺》:“命服者,命为将,王命之服也。”
 
  14、朱芾(涂tú)斯皇:《集传》:“朱芾,黄朱之芾也。皇犹煌煌也。”
 
  15、珩(横héng):佩玉。
 
  16、鴥(玉yù):疾飞的样子。
 
  17、戾:《毛传》:“戾,至也。”
 
  18、钲(章zhāng)人:击鼓传令者。鞠:宣告。《毛传》:“钲以静之,鼓以动之。鞠,告也。” 《郑笺》:“钲也鼓也,各有人焉。言钲人伐鼓,互言尔。……陈师告旅亦互言之。”
 
  19、显允方叔:《传疏》:“言有显德者,方叔也。”
 
  20、渊渊:《毛传》:“渊渊,鼓声也。入曰振旅。”
 
  21、阗阗(田tián):击鼓声。《集传》:“阗阗,亦鼓声也。”
 
  22、蠢尔蛮荆:《集传》:“蠢者,动而无知之貌。蛮荆,荆州之蛮也。”
 
  23、雠:通“仇”。
 
  24、《集传》:“元,大;犹,谋也。言方叔虽老而谋则壮也。”
 
  25、讯:间谍。丑:丑类,对敌人的篾称。
 
  26、焞焞(屯tún):盛貌。何楷《诗经世本古义》:“啴啴焞焞,如霆如雷,皆车声也。”
 
  27、威:畏。《集传》:“是以蛮荆闻其名而皆来畏服也。”《通释》:“威,犹畏也。”

译文


  采呀采呀采芑忙,从那边的新田里,采到这边菑田旁。大将方叔来此地,战车就有三千辆,士卒舞盾操练忙。方叔统帅自有方,驾起战车驱四马。四马齐整气昂昂。大车红漆作彩饰,竹席帷子鱼皮箱,牛皮胸带与马缰。

  采呀采呀采芑忙,从那边的新田里,采到村庄的中央。大将方叔来此地,战车就有三千辆,龙蛇大旗鲜又亮。方叔统帅自有方,车毂车衡皮饰装,八个马铃响叮当。朝廷礼服穿在身,红色蔽膝亮堂堂,绿色佩玉玱玱响。

  鹰隼振翅疾飞翔,迅猛直上抵云天,忽而落下栖树上。大将方叔来此地,战车就有三千辆,士卒舞盾操练忙。方叔统帅自有方,鼓师击鼓传号令,摆阵训话军容壮。威风凛凛我方叔,击鼓咚咚阵容强,整军退兵气势壮。

  愚蠢无知那蛮荆,与我大国结仇怨。想那方叔为元老,谋划一定很谨严。方叔统帅自有方,俘虏敌军必凯旋。战车行进响隆隆,隆隆车声不间断,如那雷霆响彻天。威风凛凛我方叔,曾征玁狁于北边,也能以威服荆蛮。

鉴赏


  《小雅·采芑》描绘的是周宣王卿士、大将方叔为威慑荆蛮而演军振旅的画面。从整体而言,此诗所描绘可分为两层。前三章为第一层,着重表现方叔指挥的这次军事演习的规模与声势,同时盛赞方叔治军的卓越才能。第四章为第二层,犹如一纸讨伐荆蛮的檄文,表达了以此众战、无城不破、无坚不摧的自信心和威慑力,也点明了这次演习的目的和用意。

  诗的开首以“采芑”起兴,很自然地引出这次演习的地点:“新田”、“菑亩”。紧接着一支浩浩荡荡的大军出现在旷野上,马蹄得得,敲不碎阵列中之肃穆严整;军旗猎猎,掩不住苍穹下之杀气腾腾。在这里,作者以一约数“三千”极言周军猛将如云、战车如潮的强大阵容,进而又将“镜头的焦距”拉近至队伍的前方,精心安排了一个主将出场的赫赫威仪。只见他,乘坐一辆红色的战车,花席为帘、鲛皮为服,四匹马训练有素、铜钩铁辔,在整个队伍里坐镇中央,高大威武而与众不同。真是未谋其面已威猛慑人。诗的第二章与上大体相同,以互文见义之法,主要通过色彩刻画(“旗旐央央”,“约軝错衡”),继续加强对演习队伍声势之描绘。在对方叔形象的刻画上则更逼近一步:“服其命服”的方叔朱衣黄裳、佩玉鸣鸾、气度非凡。同时也点明他为王卿士的重要身份。第三章格调为之一变,以鹰隼的一飞冲天暗比方叔所率周军勇猛无敌和斗志昂扬。接下来作者又具体地描绘了周师在主帅的指挥下演习阵法的情形:雷霆般的战鼓声中,战车保持着进攻的阵形,在响彻云霄的喊杀声中向前冲去;演习结束,又是一阵鼓响,下达收兵的号令,队伍便井然有序地退出演习场,整顿完毕后,浩浩荡荡地返回营地。(“伐鼓渊渊,振旅阗阗”)。第四章辞色俱厉,以雄壮的气概直斥无端滋乱之荆蛮(“蠢尔蛮荆,大邦为仇”)。告诫说,以方叔如此装备精良、训练有素之师旅讨伐荆蛮,定能以迅雷不及掩耳之势,摧敌之军,拔敌之城,俘敌之人,败之于谈笑挥手之间(“方叔率止,执讯获丑”)。

  统观全诗,有两点值得注意,其一是此诗并非实写战争,而是写一次军事演习。这从诗中“师干之试”等处可证。吴闿生《诗义会通》云:“皆误以‘蛮荆来威’为实有其事,不知乃作者虚拟颂祷词。”可谓得诗真义。其二,此诗从头至尾层层推进,专事渲染,纯以气势胜,正如清方玉润《诗经原始》所评:“振笔挥洒,词色俱厉,有泰山压卵之势。” 
 
 
 

    1
    0
    申明:1.中文百科在线的词条资料来自网友(一些人是某学科领域的专家)贡献,供您查阅参考。一些和您切身相关的具体问题(特别是健康、经济、法律相关问题),出于审慎起见,建议咨询专业人士以获得更有针对性的答案。2.中文百科的词条(含所附图片)系由网友上传,如果涉嫌侵权,请与客服联系,我们将及时给予删除。3.如需转载本页面内容,请注明来源于www.zwbk.org

    词条保护申请

  • * 如果用户不希望该词条被修改,可以申请词条保护
    * 管理员审核通过后,该词条会被设为不能修改

    注意:只有该词条的创建者才能申请词条保护

联系我们意见反馈帮助中心免责声明
Copyright © 2010 zwbk.org 中文百科在线 All rights reserved.京ICP证090285号