网络百科新概念
提示
 正文中的蓝色文字是词条,点击蓝色文字可进入该词条页面;
 正文中的红色文字是尚待创建的词条,点击红色文字可进入创建词条页面;
 欢迎参与词条创建或编辑修改!人人为我,我为人人。共同建设中文百科在线,共创知识文明!
zwbkorg
关注微信,获取更多信息
阅读 5350 次 历史版本 1个 创建者:红尘紫陌 (2010/9/16 17:57:31)  最新编辑:红尘紫陌 (2010/9/16 17:57:38)
论语·尧曰
目录[ 隐藏 ]
上一篇:论语·子张
《论语》目录
全书简介见《论语》词条
 
 

原文

 
  1 尧曰:“咨!尔舜!天之历数在尔躬。允执其中。四海困穷,天禄永终。”舜亦以命禹。曰:“予小子履,敢用玄牡,敢昭告于皇皇后帝:有罪不敢赦。帝臣不蔽,简在帝心。朕躬有罪,无以万方;万方有罪,罪在朕躬。”周有大赉,善人是富。“虽有周亲,不如仁人。百姓有过,在予一人。”谨权量,审法度,修废官,四方之政行焉。兴灭国,继绝世,举逸民,天下之民归心焉。所重:民、食、丧、祭。宽则得众,信则民任焉,敏则有功,公则说。
   2 子张问于孔子曰:“何如斯可以从政矣?”子曰:“尊五美,屏四恶,斯可以从政矣。”子张曰:“何谓五美?”子曰:“君子惠而不费,劳而不怨,欲而不贪,泰而不骄,威而不猛。”子张曰:“何谓惠而不费?”子曰:“因民之所利而利之,斯不亦惠而不费乎?择可劳而劳之,又谁怨?欲仁而得仁,又焉贪?君子无众寡,无小大,无敢慢,斯不亦泰而不骄乎?君子正其衣冠,尊其瞻视,俨然人望而畏之,斯不亦威而不猛乎?”子张曰:“何谓四恶?”子曰:“不教而杀谓之虐;不戒视成谓之暴;慢令致期谓之贼;犹之与人也,出纳之吝,谓之有司。”
   3 子曰:“不知命,无以为君子也。不知礼,无以立也。不知言,无以知人也。”
 

释义

 
【原文】
  1 尧曰:“咨!尔舜!天之历数在尔躬。允执其中。四海困穷,天禄永终。”舜亦以命禹。曰:“予小子履,敢用玄牡,敢昭告于皇皇后帝:有罪不敢赦。帝臣不蔽,简在帝心。朕躬有罪,无以万方;万方有罪,罪在朕躬。”周有大赉,善人是富。“虽有周亲,不如仁人。百姓有过,在予一人。”谨权量,审法度,修废官,四方之政行焉。兴灭国,继绝世,举逸民,天下之民归心焉。所重:民、食、丧、祭。宽则得众,信则民任焉,敏则有功,公则说。

【注释】
  (1)尧曰:下面引号内的话是尧在禅让帝位时给舜说的话。
  (2)咨:即“啧”,感叹词,表示赞誉。
  (3)允:真诚:诚信。
  (4)履:这是商汤的名字。
  (5)玄牡:玄,黑色谓玄。牡,公牛。
  (6)简:阅,这里是知道的意思。
  (7)朕:我。从秦始皇起,专用作帝王自称。
  (8)赉:音lài,赏赐。下面几句是说周武王。
  (9)周亲:至亲。
  (10)权量:权,秤锤。指量轻重的标准。量,斗斛。指量容积的标准。
  (11)法度:指量长度的标准。
 
【译文】
  尧说:“啧啧!你这位舜!上天的大命已经落在你的身上了。诚实地保持那中道吧!假如天下百姓都隐于困苦和贫穷,上天赐给你的禄位也就会永远终止。”舜也这样告诫过禹。(商汤)说:“我小子履谨用黑色的公牛来祭祀,向伟大的天帝祷告:有罪的人我不敢擅自赦免,天帝的臣仆我也不敢掩蔽,都由天帝的心来分辨、选择。我本人若有罪,不要牵连天下万方,天下万方若有罪,都归我一个人承担。”周朝大封诸侯,使善人都富贵起来。(周武王)说:“我虽然有至亲,不如有仁德之人。百姓有过错,都在我一人身上。”认真检查度量衡器,周密地制定法度,全国的政令就会通行了。恢复被灭亡了的国家,接续已经断绝了家族,提拔被遗落的人才,天下百姓就会真心归服了。所重视的四件事:人民、粮食、丧礼、祭祀。宽厚就能得到众人的拥护,诚信就能得到别人的任用,勤敏就能取得成绩,公平就会使百姓公平。

【英文翻译】
  Yao said, "Oh! you, Shun, the Heaven-determined order of succession now rests in your person. Sincerely hold fast the due Mean. If there shall be distress and want within the four seas, the Heavenly revenue will come to a perpetual end." Shun also used the same language in giving charge to You. Tang said, "I, the child Lu, presume to use a dark-colored victim, and presume to announce to Thee, O most great and sovereign God, that the sinner I dare not pardon, and thy ministers, O God, I do not keep in obscurity. The examination of them is by thy mind, O God. If, in my person, I commit offenses, they are not to be attributed to you, the people of the myriad regions. If you in the myriad regions commit offenses, these offenses must rest on my person." Zhou conferred great gifts, and the good were enriched. "Although he has his near relatives, they are not equal to my virtuous men. The people are throwing blame upon me, the One man." He carefully attended to the weights and measures, examined the body of the laws, restored the discarded officers, and the good government of the kingdom took its course. He revived states that had been extinguished, restored families whose line of succession had been broken, and called to office those who had retired into obscurity, so that throughout the kingdom the hearts of the people turned towards him. What he attached chief importance to were the food of the people, the duties of mourning, and sacrifices. By his generosity, he won all. By his sincerity, he made the people repose trust in him. By his earnest activity, his achievements were great. By his justice, all were delighted.

【评析】
  这一大段文字,记述了从尧帝以来历代先圣先王的遗训,中间或许有脱落之处,衔接不起来。后来的部分里,孔子对三代以来的美德善政作了高度概括,可以说是对《论语》全书中有关治国安邦平天下的思想加以总结,对后代产生了很大的影响力。
 
 
【原文】
  2 子张问于孔子曰:“何如斯可以从政矣?”子曰:“尊五美,屏四恶,斯可以从政矣。”子张曰:“何谓五美?”子曰:“君子惠而不费,劳而不怨,欲而不贪,泰而不骄,威而不猛。”子张曰:“何谓惠而不费?”子曰:“因民之所利而利之,斯不亦惠而不费乎?择可劳而劳之,又谁怨?欲仁而得仁,又焉贪?君子无众寡,无小大,无敢慢,斯不亦泰而不骄乎?君子正其衣冠,尊其瞻视,俨然人望而畏之,斯不亦威而不猛乎?”子张曰:“何谓四恶?”子曰:“不教而杀谓之虐;不戒视成谓之暴;慢令致期谓之贼;犹之与人也,出纳之吝,谓之有司。”

【注释】
  (1)斯:就,才。副词。
  (2)屏:摒除,排除。
  (3)惠:施恩惠(给人民)。名词活用作动词。
  (4)劳:使劳苦。即役使民众。使动用法。
  (5)泰:庄重矜持。
  (6)因民之所利而利之:就着人民认为有利之处而使他们在这里获得利。因,就着,借着。介词,表示动作行为发生时借助的条件。
  (7)无:无论,不管。连词,表示无条件。
  (8)尊其瞻视:使他的目光尊严。使动用法。瞻、视,这是两个同义动词连用。在这里用作名词,作“目光”讲。
  (9)不戒视成:不事先告诫,而突然检查看他做成功没有。
  (10)慢令致期:命令下达很晚,到限期却要求一定完成。慢,慢下达,晚下达。形容词活用作动词。致,到。
  (11)犹之:同样,一样。与:给予。
  (12)出纳之吝:出手时吝啬。纳,本为“入”意,在这里只作“出”的衬词,没有意思。有司:管理财务的小官。这里借指“小气”的意思。

【译文】
  子张问孔子说:“怎样才可以治理政事呢?”孔子说:“尊重五种美德,排除四种恶政,这样就可以治理政事了。”子张问:“五种美德是什么?”孔子说:“君子要给百姓以恩惠而自已却无所耗费;使百姓劳作而不使他们怨恨;要追求仁德而不贪图财利;庄重而不傲慢;威严而不凶猛。”子张说:“怎样叫要给百姓以恩惠而自己却无所耗费呢?”孔子说:“让百姓们去做对他们有利的事,这不就是对百姓有利而不掏自己的腰包嘛!选择可以让百姓劳作的时间和事情让百姓去做。这又有谁会怨恨呢?自己要追求仁德便得到了仁,又还有什么可贪的呢?君子对人,无论多少,势力大小,都不怠慢他们,这不就是庄重而不傲慢吗?君子衣冠整齐,目不邪视,使人见了就让人生敬畏之心,这不也是威严而不凶猛吗?”子张问:“什么叫四种恶政呢?”孔子说:“不经教化便加以杀戮叫做虐;不加告诫便要求成功叫做暴;不加监督而突然限期叫做贼,同样是给人财物,却出手吝啬,叫做小气。”

【英文翻译】
  Zi Zhang asked Confucius, saying, "In what way should a person in authority act in order that he may conduct government properly?" The Master replied, "Let him honor the five excellent, and banish away the four bad, things; then may he conduct government properly." Zi Zhang said, "What are meant by the five excellent things?" The Master said, "When the person in authority is beneficent without great expenditure; when he lays tasks on the people without their repining; when he pursues what he desires without being covetous; when he maintains a dignified ease without being proud; when he is majestic without being fierce." Zi Zhang said, "What is meant by being beneficent without great expenditure?" The Master replied, "When the person in authority makes more beneficial to the people the things from which they naturally derive benefit;-- is not this being beneficent without great expenditure? When he chooses the labors which are proper, and makes them labor on them, who will repine? When his desires are set on benevolent government, and he secures it, who will accuse him of covetousness? Whether he has to do with many people or few, or with things great or small, he does not dare to indicate any disrespect - is not this to maintain a dignified ease without any pride? He adjusts his clothes and cap, and throws a dignity into his looks, so that, thus dignified, he is looked at with awe - is not this to be majestic without being fierce?" Zi Zhang then asked, "What are meant by the four bad things?" The Master said, "To put the people to death without having instructed them - this is called cruelty. To require from them, suddenly, the full tale of work, without having given them warning - this is called oppression. To issue orders as if without urgency, at first, and, when the time comes, to insist on them with severity - this is called injury. And, generally, in the giving pay or rewards to men, to do it in a stingy way - this is called acting the part of a mere official."

【评析】
  这是子张向孔子请教为官从政的要领。这里,孔子讲了“五美四恶”,这是他政治主张的基本点,其中包含有丰富的“民本”思想,比如:“因民之所利而利之”,“择可劳而劳之”,反对“不教而杀”、“不戒视成”的暴虐之政。从这里可以看出,孔子对德治、礼治社会有自己独到的主张,在今天仍不失其重要的借鉴价值。
 
 
【原文】
  3 子曰:“不知命,无以为君子也。不知礼,无以立也。不知言,无以知人也。”

【注释】
  (1)命:不可变更的天道之规则、人道之规则、社会之道之规则即是命。

【译文】
  孔子说:“不懂得天命,就不能做君子;不知道礼仪,就不能立身处世;不善于分辨别人的话语,就不能真正了解他。”

【英文翻译】
  The Master said, "Without recognizing the ordinances of Heaven, it is impossible to be a superior man. Without an acquaintance with the rules of Propriety, it is impossible for the character to be established. Without knowing the force of words, it is impossible to know men."

【评析】
  这一章,孔子再次向君子提出三点要求,即“知命”、“知礼”、“知言”,这是君子立身处世需要特别注意的问题。《论语》一书最后一章谈君子人格的内容,表明此书之侧重点,就在于塑造具有理想人格的君子,培养治国安邦平天下的志士仁人。
 
 
 
 

    2
    0
    申明:1.中文百科在线的词条资料来自网友(一些人是某学科领域的专家)贡献,供您查阅参考。一些和您切身相关的具体问题(特别是健康、经济、法律相关问题),出于审慎起见,建议咨询专业人士以获得更有针对性的答案。2.中文百科的词条(含所附图片)系由网友上传,如果涉嫌侵权,请与客服联系,我们将及时给予删除。3.如需转载本页面内容,请注明来源于www.zwbk.org

    词条保护申请

  • * 如果用户不希望该词条被修改,可以申请词条保护
    * 管理员审核通过后,该词条会被设为不能修改

    注意:只有该词条的创建者才能申请词条保护

联系我们意见反馈帮助中心免责声明
Copyright © 2010 zwbk.org 中文百科在线 All rights reserved.京ICP证090285号