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阅读 11002 次 历史版本 1个 创建者:红尘紫陌 (2010/9/16 14:40:25)  最新编辑:红尘紫陌 (2010/9/16 15:08:28)
论语·季氏
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原文

 
  1 季氏将伐颛臾。冉有、季路见于孔子曰:“季氏将有事于颛臾。”孔子曰:“求!无乃尔是过与?夫颛臾,昔者先王以为东蒙主,且在邦域之中矣,是社稷之臣也。何以伐为?”冉有曰:“夫子欲之,吾二臣者皆不欲也。”孔子曰:“求!周任有言曰:“陈力就列,不能者止。’危而不持,颠而不扶,则将焉用彼相矣?且尔言过矣。虎兕出于柙,龟玉毁于椟中,是谁之过与?”冉有曰:“今夫颛臾,固而近于费。今不取,后世必为子孙忧。”孔子曰:“求!君子疾夫舍曰欲之,而必为之辞。丘也闻有国有家者,不患寡而患不均,不患贫而患不安。盖均无贫,和无寡,安无倾。夫如是,故远人不服,则修文德以来之。既来之,则安之。今由与求也,相夫子,远人不服而不能来也;邦分崩离析而不能守也。而谋动干戈于邦内。吾恐季孙之忧,不在颛臾,而在萧墙之内也。”
  2 孔子曰:“天下有道,则礼乐征伐自天子出;天下无道,则礼乐征伐自诸侯出。自诸侯出,盖十世希不失矣;自大夫出,五世希不失矣;陪臣执国命,三世希不失矣。天下有道,则政不在大夫。天下有道,则庶人不议。”
  3 孔子曰:“禄之去公室,五世矣;政逮于大夫,四世矣;故夫三桓之子孙,微矣。”
  4 孔子曰:“益者三友,损者三友。友直,友谅,友多闻,益矣。友便辟,友善柔,友便佞,损矣。”
  5 孔子曰:“益者三乐,损者三乐。乐节礼乐,乐道人之善,乐多贤友,益矣。乐骄乐,乐佚游,乐宴乐,损矣。”
  6 孔子曰:“侍于君子有三愆:言未及之而言谓之躁,言及之而不言谓之隐,未见颜色而言谓之瞽。”
  7 孔子曰:“君子有三戒:少之时,血气未定,戒之在色;及其壮也,血气方刚,戒之在鬭;及其老也,血气既衰,戒之在得。”
  8 孔子曰:“君子有三畏:畏天命,畏大人,畏圣人之言。小人不知天命而不畏也,狎大人,侮圣人之言。”
  9 孔子曰:“生而知之者,上也;学而知之者,次也;困而学之,又其次也;困而不学,民斯为下矣。”
  10 孔子曰:“君子有九思:视思明,听思聪,色思温,貌思恭,言思忠,事思敬,疑思问,忿思难,见得思义。”
  11 孔子曰:“见善如不及,见不善如探汤。吾见其人矣,吾闻其语矣。隐居以求其志,行义以达其道。吾闻其语矣,未见其人也。”
  12 齐景公有马千驷,死之日,民无德而称焉。伯夷叔齐饿于首阳之下,民到于今称之。其斯之谓与?
  13 陈亢问于伯鱼曰:“子亦有异闻乎?”对曰:“未也。尝独立,鲤趋而过庭。曰:‘学诗乎?’对曰:‘未也。’‘不学诗,无以言。’鲤退而学诗。他日又独立,鲤趋而过庭。曰:‘学礼乎?’对曰:‘未也。’‘不学礼,无以立。’鲤退而学礼。闻斯二者。”陈亢退而喜曰:“问一得三,闻诗,闻礼,又闻君子之远其子也。”
  14 邦君之妻,君称之曰夫人,夫人自称曰小童;邦人称之曰君夫人,称诸异邦曰寡小君;异邦人称之亦曰君夫人。
 

释义

 
【原文】
  1 季氏将伐颛臾。冉有、季路见于孔子曰:“季氏将有事于颛臾。”孔子曰:“求!无乃尔是过与?夫颛臾,昔者先王以为东蒙主,且在邦域之中矣,是社稷之臣也。何以伐为?”冉有曰:“夫子欲之,吾二臣者皆不欲也。”孔子曰:“求!周任有言曰:“陈力就列,不能者止。’危而不持,颠而不扶,则将焉用彼相矣?且尔言过矣。虎兕出于柙,龟玉毁于椟中,是谁之过与?”冉有曰:“今夫颛臾,固而近于费。今不取,后世必为子孙忧。”孔子曰:“求!君子疾夫舍曰欲之,而必为之辞。丘也闻有国有家者,不患寡而患不均,不患贫而患不安。盖均无贫,和无寡,安无倾。夫如是,故远人不服,则修文德以来之。既来之,则安之。今由与求也,相夫子,远人不服而不能来也;邦分崩离析而不能守也。而谋动干戈于邦内。吾恐季孙之忧,不在颛臾,而在萧墙之内也。”

【注释】
  (1)颛臾:音zhuān yú,鲁国的附属国,在今山东省费县西。
  (2)有事:指有军事行动,用兵作战。
  (3)东蒙主:东蒙,蒙山。主,主持祭祀的人。
  (4)周任:人名,周代史官。
  (5)陈力就列:陈力,发挥能力,按才力担任适当的职务。
  (6)相:搀扶盲人的人叫相,这里是辅助的意思。
  (7)兕:音sì。雌性犀牛。
  (8)柙:音xiá,用以关押野兽的木笼。
  (9)椟:音dú,匣子。
  (10)费:季氏的采邑。
  (11)贫、寡:可能有错误,应为寡、贫。
  (12)萧墙:照壁屏风。指宫廷之内。
 
【译文】
  季氏将要讨伐颛臾。冉有、子路去见孔子说:“季氏快要攻打颛臾了。”孔子说:“冉求,这不就是你的过错吗?颛臾从前是周天子让它主持东蒙的祭祀的,而且已经在鲁国的疆域之内,是国家的臣属啊,为什么要讨伐它呢?”冉有说:“季孙大夫想去攻打,我们两个人都不愿意。”孔子说:“冉求,周任有句话说:‘尽自己的力量去负担你的职务,实在做不好就辞职。’有了危险不去扶助,跌倒了不去搀扶,那还用辅助的人干什么呢?而且你说的话错了。老虎、犀牛从笼子里跑出来,龟甲、玉器在匣子里毁坏了,这是谁的过错呢?”冉有说:“现在颛臾城墙坚固,而且离费邑很近。现在不把它夺取过来,将来一定会成为子孙的忧患。”孔子说:“冉求,君子痛恨那种不肯实说自己想要那样做而又一定要找出理由来为之辩解的作法。我听说,对于诸侯和大夫,不怕贫穷,而怕财富不均;不怕人口少,而怕不安定。由于财富均了,也就没有所谓贫穷;大家和睦,就不会感到人少;安定了,也就没有倾覆的危险了。因为这样,所以如果远方的人还不归服,就用仁、义、礼、乐招徕他们;已经来了,就让他们安心住下去。现在,仲由和冉求你们两个人辅助季氏,远方的人不归服,而不能招徕他们;国内民心离散,你们不能保全,反而策划在国内使用武力。我只怕季孙的忧患不在颛臾,而是在自己的内部呢!”
【英文翻译】
  The head of the Ji family was going to attack Zhuan Yu. Ran You and Ji Lu had an interview with Confucius, and said, "Our chief, Ji, is going to commence operations against Zhuan Yu." Confucius said, "Qiu, is it not you who are in fault here? Now, in regard to Zhuan Yu, long ago, a former king appointed its ruler to preside over the sacrifices to the eastern Mang; moreover, it is in the midst of the territory of our state; and its ruler is a minister in direct connection with the sovereign - What has your chief to do with attacking it?" Ran You said, "Our master wishes the thing; neither of us two ministers wishes it." Confucius said, "Qiu, there are the words of Zhou Ren, 'When he can put forth his ability, he takes his place in the ranks of office; when he finds himself unable to do so, he retires from it. How can he be used as a guide to a blind man, who does not support him when tottering, nor raise him up when fallen?' And further, you speak wrongly. When a tiger or rhinoceros escapes from his cage; when a tortoise or piece of jade is injured in its repository - whose is the fault?" Ran You said, "But at present, Zhuan Yu is strong and near to Fei; if our chief do not now take it, it will hereafter be a sorrow to his descendants." Confucius said. "Qiu, the superior man hates those declining to say 'I want such and such a thing,' and framing explanations for their conduct. I have heard that rulers of states and chiefs of families are not troubled lest their people should be few, but are troubled lest they should not keep their several places; that they are not troubled with fears of poverty, but are troubled with fears of a want of contented repose among the people in their several places. For when the people keep their several places, there will be no poverty; when harmony prevails, there will be no scarcity of people; and when there is such a contented repose, there will be no rebellious upsettings. So it is. Therefore, if remoter people are not submissive, all the influences of civil culture and virtue are to be cultivated to attract them to be so; and when they have been so attracted, they must be made contented and tranquil. Now, here are you, You and Qiu, assisting your chief. Remoter people are not submissive, and, with your help, he cannot attract them to him. In his own territory there are divisions and downfalls, leavings and separations, and, with your help, he cannot preserve it. And yet he is planning these hostile movements within the state. I am afraid that the sorrow of the Ji Sun family will not be on account of Zhuan Yu, but will be found within the screen of their own court."

【评析】
  这一章又反映出孔子的反战思想。他不主张通过军事手段解决国际、国内的问题,而希望采用礼、义、仁、乐的方式解决问题,这是孔子的一贯思想。此外,这一章里孔子还提出了“不患贫而患不均,不患寡而患不安”。朱熹对此句的解释是:“均,谓各得其分;安,谓上下相安。”这种思想对后代人的影响很大,甚至成为人们的社会心理。就今天而言,这种思想有消极的一面,基本不适宜现代社会,这是应该指出的。
 
 
【原文】
  2 孔子曰:“天下有道,则礼乐征伐自天子出;天下无道,则礼乐征伐自诸侯出。自诸侯出,盖十世希不失矣;自大夫出,五世希不失矣;陪臣执国命,三世希不失矣。天下有道,则政不在大夫。天下有道,则庶人不议。”

【注释】
  无

【译文】
  孔子说:“天下有道的时候,制作礼乐和出兵打仗都由天子作主决定;天下无道的时候,制作礼乐和出兵打仗,由诸侯作主决定。由诸侯作主决定,大概经过十代很少有不垮台的;由大夫决定,经过五代很少有不垮台的。天下有道,国家政权就不会落在大夫手中。天下有道,老百姓也就不会议论国家政治了。”

【英文翻译】
  Confucius said, "When good government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the son of Heaven. When bad government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the princes. When these things proceed from the princes, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in ten generations. When they proceed from the great officers of the princes, as a rule, the case will be few in which they do not lose their power in five generations. When the subsidiary ministers of the great officers hold in their grasp the orders of the state, as a rule the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in three generations. When right principles prevail in the kingdom, government will not be in the hands of the great officers. When right principles prevail in the kingdom, there will be no discussions among the common people."

【评析】
  “天下无道”指什么?孔子这里讲,一是周天子的大权落入诸侯手中,二是诸侯国家的大权落入大夫和家臣手中,三是老百姓议论政事。对于这种情况,孔子极感不满,认为这种政权很快就会垮台。他希望回到“天下有道”的那种时代去,政权就会稳定,百姓也相安无事。
 
 
【原文】
  3 孔子曰:“禄之去公室,五世矣;政逮于大夫,四世矣;故夫三桓之子孙,微矣。”

【注释】
  (1)五世:指鲁国宣公、成公、襄公、昭公、定公五世。
  (2)逮:及。
  (3)四世:指季孙氏文子、武子、平子、桓子四世。
  (4)三桓:鲁国伸孙、叔孙、季孙都出于鲁桓公,所以叫三桓。
 
【译文】
  孔子说:“鲁国失去国家政权已经有五代了,政权落在大夫之手已经四代了,所以三桓的子孙也衰微了。”

【英文翻译】
  Confucius said, "The revenue of the state has left the ducal house now for five generations. The government has been in the hands of the great officers for four generations. On this account, the descendants of the three Huan are much reduced."

【评析】
  三桓掌握了国家政权,这是春秋末期的一种政治变革,对此,孔子表示不满。本章里孔子对当时社会政治形势提出了自己的认识和态度。孔子的观点是,社会政治变革就是“天下无道”,这还是基于他的“礼治”的思想,希望变为“天下有道”的政治局面。
 
 
【原文】
  4 孔子曰:“益者三友,损者三友。友直,友谅,友多闻,益矣。友便辟,友善柔,友便佞,损矣。”

【注释】
  (1)谅:诚信。
  (2)便辟:惯于走邪道。
  (3)善柔:善于和颜悦色骗人。
  (4)便侫:惯于花言巧语。
 
【译文】
  孔子说:“有益的交友有三种,有害的交友有三种。同正直的人交友,同诚信的人交友,同见闻广博的人交友,这是有益的。同惯于走邪道的人交朋友,同善于阿谀奉承的人交朋友,同惯于花言巧语的人交朋友,这是有害的。”

【英文翻译】
  Confucius said, "There are three friendships which are advantageous, and three which are injurious. Friendship with the uplight; friendship with the sincere; and friendship with the man of much observation - these are advantageous. Friendship with the man of specious airs; friendship with the insinuatingly soft; and friendship with the glib-tongued - these are injurious."

【评析】
  无论为人还是从政,都有个交友的问题。交友不可不慎重选择。孔子早就警告,友有“益友”、“损友”之分。结交“益友”,则德才日进,事业有成;结交“损友”,不但不能长进有成,而且可能狼狈为奸,走上违法犯罪的道路。
 
 
【原文】
  5 孔子曰:“益者三乐,损者三乐。乐节礼乐,乐道人之善,乐多贤友,益矣。乐骄乐,乐佚游,乐宴乐,损矣。”

【注释】
  (1)节礼乐:孔子主张用礼乐来节制人。
  (2)骄乐:骄纵不知节制的乐。
  (3)佚:同“逸”。
  (4)晏乐:沉溺于宴饮取乐。
 
【译文】
  孔子说:“有益的喜好有三种,有害的喜好有三种。以礼乐调节自己为喜好,以称道别人的好处为喜好,以有许多贤德之友为喜好,这是有益的。喜好骄傲,喜欢闲游,喜欢大吃大喝,这就是有害的。”

【英文翻译】
  Confucius said, "There are three things men find enjoyment in which are advantageous, and three things they find enjoyment in which are injurious. To find enjoyment in the discriminating study of ceremonies and music; to find enjoyment in speaking of the goodness of others; to find enjoyment in having many worthy friends - these are advantageous. To find enjoyment in extravagant pleasures; to find enjoyment in idleness and sauntering; to find enjoyment in the pleasures of feasting - these are injurious."

【评析】
  一个人的娱乐爱好,即现在所说的工作圈之外的生活圈、娱乐圈,对人的品德修养、对官员的廉洁从政至关重要。虽然今天我们的生活和娱乐内容和孔子的那个时代大不相同,但孔子总结的娱乐爱好的原则,还是很有指导意义的。
 
 
【原文】
  6 孔子曰:“侍于君子有三愆:言未及之而言谓之躁,言及之而不言谓之隐,未见颜色而言谓之瞽。”

【注释】
  (1)愆:音qiān,过失。
  (2)瞽:音gǔ,盲人。
 
【译文】
  孔子说:“侍奉在君子旁边陪他说话,要注意避免犯三种过失:还没有问到你的时候就说话,这是急躁;已经问到你的时候你却不说,这叫隐瞒;不看君子的脸色而贸然说话;这是瞎子。”

【英文翻译】
  Confucius said, "There are three errors to which they who stand in the presence of a man of virtue and station are liable. They may speak when it does not come to them to speak - this is called rashness. They may not speak when it comes to them to speak - this is called concealment. They may speak without looking at the countenance of their superior - this is called blindness."

【评析】
  以上这几章,主要讲的是社会交往过程中应当注意的问题。交朋友要结交那些正直、诚信、见闻广博的人,而不要结交那些逢迎谄媚、花言巧语的人,要用礼乐调节自己,多多地称道别人的好处,与君子交往要注意不急躁、不隐瞒等等,这些对我们都有一定的参考价值。
 
 
【原文】
  7 孔子曰:“君子有三戒:少之时,血气未定,戒之在色;及其壮也,血气方刚,戒之在鬭;及其老也,血气既衰,戒之在得。”

【注释】
  无

【译文】
  孔子说:“君子有三种事情应引以为戒:年少的时候,血气还不成熟,要戒除对女色的迷恋;等到身体成熟了,血气方刚,要戒除与人争斗;等到老年,血气已经衰弱了,要戒除贪得无厌。”

【英文翻译】
  Confucius said, "There are three things which the superior man guards against. In youth, when the physical powers are not yet settled, he guards against lust. When he is strong and the physical powers are full of vigor, he guards against quarrelsomeness. When he is old, and the animal powers are decayed, he guards against covetousness."
 
【评析】
  这是孔子对人从少年到老年这一生中需要注意的问题作出的忠告。这对今天的人们还是很有必要注意的。
 
 
【原文】
  8 孔子曰:“君子有三畏:畏天命,畏大人,畏圣人之言。小人不知天命而不畏也,狎大人,侮圣人之言。”

【译文】
  孔子说:“君子有三件敬畏的事情:敬畏天命,敬畏地位高贵的人,敬畏圣人的话,小人不懂得天命,因而也不敬畏,不尊重地位高贵的人,轻侮圣人之言。”

【英文翻译】
  Confucius said, "There are three things of which the superior man stands in awe. He stands in awe of the ordinances of Heaven. He stands in awe of great men. He stands in awe of the words of sages. The mean man does not know the ordinances of Heaven, and consequently does not stand in awe of them. He is disrespectful to great men. He makes sport of the words of sages."

【评析】
  这一章,很说明了孔子对于君子与小人在对待天命、大人、圣人方面的区别。那就是一是敬畏的姿态,一是轻慢的姿态,其实狎解释出来是亲近而不庄重,其实就是轻慢,那个侮其实也是轻慢之意,而所谓不懂得敬畏,其实也是轻慢。君子有所怀抱,因此知道天命、大人、圣人都是值得敬重值得去追求亲近的。而小人则不同,其无所怀抱,不知天命、大人、圣人之庄重,以为如同自己一样是无知之物,所以无所忌惮,只知轻慢。两相比较,就很容易知道怎样区别君子与小人的了。
 
 
【原文】
  9 孔子曰:“生而知之者,上也;学而知之者,次也;困而学之,又其次也;困而不学,民斯为下矣。”

【注释】
  无

【译文】
  孔子说:“生来就知道的人,是上等人;经过学习以后才知道的,是次一等的人;遇到困难再去学习的,是又次一等的人;遇到困难还不学习的人,这种人就是下等的人了。”

【英文翻译】
  Confucius said, "Those who are born with the possession of knowledge are the highest class of men. Those who learn, and so, readily, get possession of knowledge, are the next. Those who are dull and stupid, and yet compass the learning, are another class next to these. As to those who are dull and stupid and yet do not learn - they are the lowest of the people."

【评析】
  孔子虽说有“生而知之者”,但他不承认自己是这种人,也没有见到这种。他说自己是经过学习之后才知道的。他希望人们勤奋好学,不要等遇到困难再去学习。俗话说:书到用时方恨少,就是讲的这个道理。至于遇到困难还不去学习,就不足为训了。
 
 
【原文】
  10 孔子曰:“君子有九思:视思明,听思聪,色思温,貌思恭,言思忠,事思敬,疑思问,忿思难,见得思义。”

【注释】
  无

【译文】
  孔子说:“君子有九种要思考的事:看的时候,要思考看清与否;听的时候,要思考是否听清楚;自己的脸色,要思考是否温和,容貌要思考是否谦恭;言谈的时候,要思考是否忠诚;办事要思考是否谨慎严肃;遇到疑问,要思考是否应该向别人询问;忿怒时,要思考是否有后患,获取财利时,要思考是否合乎义的准则。”

【英文翻译】
  Confucius said, "The superior man has nine things which are subjects with him of thoughtful consideration. In regard to the use of his eyes, he is anxious to see clearly. In regard to the use of his ears, he is anxious to hear distinctly. In regard to his countenance, he is anxious that it should be benign. In regard to his demeanor, he is anxious that it should be respectful. In regard to his speech, he is anxious that it should be sincere. In regard to his doing of business, he is anxious that it should be reverently careful. In regard to what he doubts about, he is anxious to question others. When he is angry, he thinks of the difficulties(his anger may involve him in). When he sees gain to be got, he thinks of righteousness."

【评析】
  本章通过孔子所谈的“君子有九思”,把人的言行举止的各个方面都考虑到了,他要求自己和学生们一言一行都要认真思考和自我反省,这里包括个人道德修养的各种规范,如温、良、恭、俭、让、忠、孝、仁、义、礼、智等等,所有这些,是孔子关于道德修养学说的组成部分。
 
 
【原文】
  11 孔子曰:“见善如不及,见不善如探汤。吾见其人矣,吾闻其语矣。隐居以求其志,行义以达其道。吾闻其语矣,未见其人也。”

【注释】
  无

【译文】
  孔子说:“看到善良的行为,就担心达不到,看到不善良的行动,就好像把手伸到开水中一样赶快避开。我见到过这样的人,也听到过这样的话。以隐居避世来保全自己的志向,依照义而贯彻自己的主张。我听到过这种话,却没有见到过这样的人。”

【英文翻译】
  Confucius said, "Contemplating good, and pursuing it, as if they could not reach it; contemplating evil and shrinking from it, as they would from thrusting the hand into boiling water - I have seen such men, as I have heard such words. Living in retirement to study their aims, and practicing righteousness to carry out their principles - I have heard these words, but I have not seen such men."

【评析】
  这一段孔子说看到善不去做,那么就会被不善的势力裹挟着干坏事情。探汤,此汤在说文上解为热水,这个热水是怎么来的?是被一个火红的炉膛一样的天地烧沸的。中华民族传统文化中,上善若水,善几乎是道,他就像水一样滋养生命。但是,生命在看到善的时候不能仗义执言,那么就会被一个火红的理论火红的天地燃烧的沸汤挟持着干坏事情。这汤的含义,不仅是热水,还有浩浩汤汤的意思,表示水势浩大。
 
 
【原文】
  12 齐景公有马千驷,死之日,民无德而称焉。伯夷叔齐饿于首阳之下,民到于今称之。其斯之谓与?

【注释】
  无

【译文】
  齐景公有马四千匹,死的时候,百姓们觉得他没有什么德行可以称颂。伯夷、叔齐饿死在首阳山下,百姓们到现在还在称颂他们。说的就是这个意思吧。

【英文翻译】
  The Duke Jing of Qi had a thousand teams, each of four horses, but on the day of his death, the people did not praise him for a single virtue. Bo Yi and Shu Qi died of hunger at the foot of the Shou Yang mountain, and the people, down to the present time, praise them. Is not that saying illustrated by this?

【评析】
  齐景公是一国的诸侯,齐是大国,兵车有千辆,一辆有四匹马来拉,千乘就有四千匹马,很富有。但即使他有权有势,他死的那天,百姓也没有称赞他的好处或好品质之类,没有人称道他。因为他没有高尚的情操。伯夷叔齐是商朝时的贤人,周得天下后,他们不食周粟,饿死在首阳山下。他们高尚的情操至今被民众称道。被民众称道的人不一定是有钱有权的,只有拥有高尚情操优品德的人才能流芳百世。
 
 
【原文】
  13 陈亢问于伯鱼曰:“子亦有异闻乎?”对曰:“未也。尝独立,鲤趋而过庭。曰:‘学诗乎?’对曰:‘未也。’‘不学诗,无以言。’鲤退而学诗。他日又独立,鲤趋而过庭。曰:‘学礼乎?’对曰:‘未也。’‘不学礼,无以立。’鲤退而学礼。闻斯二者。”陈亢退而喜曰:“问一得三,闻诗,闻礼,又闻君子之远其子也。”

【注释】
  (1)陈亢:亢,音gāng,即陈子禽。
  (2)异闻:这里指不同于对其他学生所讲的内容。
  (3)远:音yuàn,不亲近,不偏爱。
 
【译文】
  陈亢问伯鱼:“你在老师那里听到过什么特别的教诲吗?”伯鱼回答说:“没有呀。有一次他独自站在堂上,我快步从庭里走过,他说:‘学《诗》了吗?’我回答说:‘没有。’他说:‘不学诗,就不懂得怎么说话。’我回去就学《诗》。又有一天,他又独自站在堂上,我快步从庭里走过,他说:‘学礼了吗?’我回答说:‘没有。’他说:‘不学礼就不懂得怎样立身。’我回去就学礼。我就听到过这两件事。”陈亢回去高兴地说:“我提一个问题,得到三方面的收获,听了关于《诗》的道理,听了关于礼的道理,又听了君子不偏爱自己儿子的道理。”

【英文翻译】
  Chen Kang asked Bo Yu, saying, "Have you heard any lessons from your father different from what we have all heard?" Bo Yu replied, "No. He was standing alone once, when I passed below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you learned the Odes?' On my replying 'Not yet,' he added, 'If you do not learn the Odes, you will not be fit to converse with.' I retired and studied the Odes. Another day, he was in the same way standing alone, when I passed by below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you learned the rules of Propriety?' On my replying 'Not yet,' he added, 'If you do not learn the rules of Propriety, your character cannot be established.' I then retired, and learned the rules of Propriety. I have heard only these two things from him." Chen Kang retired, and, quite delighted, said, "I asked one thing, and I have got three things. I have heard about the Odes. I have heard about the rules of Propriety. I have also heard that the superior man maintains a distant reserve towards his son."

【评析】
  这一章又反映出孔子的反战思想。他不主张通过军事手段解决国际、国内的问题,而希望采用礼、义、仁、乐的方式解决问题,这是孔子的一贯思想。此外,这一章里孔子还提出了“不患贫而患不均,不患寡而患不安”。朱熹对此句的解释是:“均,谓各得其分;安,谓上下相安。”这种思想对后代人的影响很大,甚至成为人们的社会心理。就今天而言,这种思想有消极的一面,基本不适宜现代社会,这是应该指出的。
 
 
【原文】
  14 邦君之妻,君称之曰夫人,夫人自称曰小童;邦人称之曰君夫人,称诸异邦曰寡小君;异邦人称之亦曰君夫人。

【注释】
  无

【译文】
  国君的妻子,国君称她为夫人,夫人自称为小童,国人称她为君夫人;对他国人则称她为寡小君,他国人也称她为君夫人。

【英文翻译】
  The wife of the prince of a state is called by him "fu ren". She calls herself "xiao tong". The people of the state call her "jun fu ren", and, to the people of other states, they call her "gua xiao jun". The people of other states also call her "jun fu ren".

【评析】
  这套称号是周礼的内容之一。这是为了维护等级名分制度,以达到“名正言顺”的目的。
 
 
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