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阅读 12188 次 历史版本 2个 创建者:凌一萌 (2011/4/25 16:52:20)  最新编辑:爱在西元前 (2012/5/2 13:49:51)
神父
拼音:Shén Fù (Shen Fu)
英文:Father
同义词条:Father,神甫,《神父》
  词语解释
  神父
  拼音:shén fu
  英文:Father
  释义:
  【神父】shén  fu ①古时百姓对贤明的地方长官的尊称。有敬之如神,尊之如父之意。②神甫。
  【神甫】shén  fu 对天主教东正教一般神职人员的尊称。协助主教管理教务,通常为单个教堂的负责人。过去也作“神父”。

简介

 
  神父(神甫),依信仰或神职层级而有不同的称呼,如祭司牧师祭师司铎等,是指在宗教活动或祭祀活动中,为了祭拜或崇敬所信仰的神,主持祭典,在祭坛上为辅祭或主祭的神职人员。祭司在早期社会中已经出现(如萨满教)。根据不同的信仰,祭司被认为具有程度不同的神圣性。在罗马天主教中神父除了要主持弥撒及婚礼外,为垂危者祷告、告解甚至驱魔也是神父的职务,或协助主教管理教务。神父通常也是一个教堂的负责人。  

基督教

 
神父着装
神父着装
  神父是罗马天主教东正教的宗教职位。千百年来只有男修士才可担当此职位,但并非所有修士都以成为司铎为志,选择终身为修士的所在多有。天主教的神父终身不可结婚,而东正教的神父可以在晋铎前结婚,但主教只能在独身者中挑选。近年有天主教改革派人物曾倡导容许由女性担任神父但被教会内的保守派拒绝。神父分为教区神父和修会神父,教区神父由教区主教管辖;修会神父由修会总会长管辖。要注意的是修士不是罗马天主教的宗教职位之一。天主教的神职人员仅包含执事、司铎(神父)与主教。  

神父的首要任务

  1.“服务圣道”——“你们往普天下去,向一切受造物宣传福音。”

  2.“服务圣事及圣体”——天主借着司铎的手在教友生活的不同光景中圣化、坚强他们对主的信靠。

  3.成为“天主子民的领袖”——就如基督一般地“他来不是为接受服事,而是为服事他人。”以百般的忍耐和各样的教训,去反驳、去斥责、去劝勉。  

成为天主教神父的方法

  要找修院/堂区/资深神父,定期会面,给予指导,分辨圣召,

  若要成为教区/修会神父便分别要向教区修院/修会申请。

  若申请被接纳,

  教区 → 修生
牧师雕塑
牧师雕塑
  修会 → 初学生 → 发初愿后成为修会会士(修士/修女

  然后接受灵修、神学、哲学、牧民、人格等培育,一般7年

  之后,向主教申请成为执事。若主教批准,由主教授予执事圣秩,祝圣其为执事。

  经过约1年过渡期,再向主教申请成为司铎(神父)。若主教批准,由主教授予司铎圣秩,祝圣其为司铎。 

英国国教

  虽然英国国教(圣公会)还保留了公教会的一部分礼仪,但在成为神职人员的教育上和新教类似,也和新教一样称为牧师

  牧师是在一般基督新教的教会中,专职负责带领及照顾其他基督徒的神职人员。圣经原文的用字就是牧羊人之意。

  牧师(旧译会长)是基督新教的圣品人,与天主教中神父的不同,在于牧师可以结婚,女性亦可以成为牧师。在三级圣品制里,牧师上一级是主教,低一级是会吏。 

神父的权力


  神权是指神所赋予的权力。“神父”是天主教的神职人员,修道院的“修士”,只有经过“圣秩礼”(天主教的一种圣礼),才能称为神父。神父的职权是协助主教管理教务,管理本堂所辖区教徒,进行传教活动。有付“圣洗”、听“告解”、赋“终傅”、成“圣体”、祝福“婚配”之权,如受主教委托亦可“坚振”,通过行使圣事或其他宗教仪式,可使教徒获得神的恩宠或罪的赦免。

  神权亦可摘除,“摘除神权”,原意为“暂时吊销”的意思,是天主教会给予神职人员的一种处分,受罚的人不仅被停止在教会的一切职务,而且在未获宽免前,他不能施行圣事、行使职权和领受职禄。

  但是也有例外,在紧急情况下,比如有重病人,而病人跟前又没有其他神父的情形下,被“摘除神权”的神职人员可以应教徒的邀请,施终敷圣事。  

神父与牧师的区别


  神父和牧师的区别问题,属于基督教(广义)教制问题。汉语在翻译源自西方的基督教时,由于传教路线和派系问题,也由于我们中国传统文化博大精深和包罗宽厚的原因,将基督教的不同宗派区别翻译。神父,为罗马公教或天主教的司铎的礼称,神甫,是等译东正教的司铎,牧师,就是改教开始的基督教新教的圣职。

犹太教——拉比


  犹太教中的拉比职能和基督教相似。

  拉比,有时也写为辣彼,是犹太人中的一个特别阶层,主要为有学问的学者,是老师,也是智者的象征。犹太人的拉比社会功能广泛,尤其在宗教中扮演重要角色,为许多犹太教仪式中的主持。因此,拉比的社会地位十分尊崇,连君王也经常邀请拉比进宫教导。在犹太人的经典塔木德中,就经常提及拉比的事迹。

  拉比是老师的意思,是智者的象征,是可以去请教的人,他们经常与常人接触,解答他们的疑惑。他们是一群观察生活,思考生活从而获得智慧的人。  

电影《神父》   

基本信息

1
电影《神父》
  类型: 剧情
  主演: 罗伯特·卡莱尔,Michael Ananins,Victoria Arnold
  导演: Antonia Bird
  片长: 105分钟
  国家/地区: 英国
  对白语言: 英语
  上映日期: 1994-09-12
  颜色: 彩色
  编剧: Jimmy McGovern
  拍摄年份: 1994

剧情简介

  盖普·金顿是一位年轻英俊充满活力的神职人员,他满怀拯救社会中人们心灵的神圣职责,来到一个环境混乱、人心散漫的典型的英国工业小城镇。这个混乱的小镇居民素质低落,教化困难,心烦意乱的盖普时常去同志酒吧消磨时光,借酒消愁。这天,他与一男子葛瑞汉相识,一夜激情过后,盖普对他仍满是眷恋。不久,在与葛瑞汉约会时,他俩在车内接吻被巡警查获,并发现盖普是神职人员,此事经报纸披露,顿时哗然…… 年轻的英国神父心中对神子的爱和对同性的爱激烈交战使这部同性恋电影具有了不一般的美丽与重要性……

  影片细致刻画了一位年轻的神父的信仰危机,人世间的罪恶与无奈,使神父意志消沉,白天他在教堂中从事宗教活动,夜间则频频进出男同性恋者聚集的场所,寻找真爱。
 

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